In the article "On Judging the Significance of Differences by Examining the Overlap Between Confidence Intervals," by Schenker and Gentleman (American Statistician, Vol. 55, No. 3), the authors consider sample data in this statement:

"Independent simple random samples, each of size 200, have been drawn, and 112 people in the first sample have the attribute, whereas 88 people in the second sample have the attribute." Based on the preceding results, what should you conclude about the equality of \(p_{1}\) and \(p_{2}\)?

Which of the three preceding methods is least effective in testing for the equality of \(p_{1}\) and \(p_{2}\)?