Why binding energy per nucleon is constant(pratically) for atomic number, A, larger than 30 and less than 170, and explain the saturation property of nuclear forces with analogy that is easy to understand?

Kayla Mcdowell
2022-10-17
Answered

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ehedem26

Answered 2022-10-18
Author has **13** answers

You have to realized that the combined forces that bind the protons and neutrons together are a complex interplay between two forces:

a)The electromagnetic one, where the charge of a proton repels the charge of another proton and no binding could occur

b) the strong force , the force that binds the quarks into the protons and neutrons, and spills over around each proton and neutron and is an attractive one.

From this you can understand that the number of particles that can be "bound" depends on the interplay of the repulsive and attractive forces and is a many body problem not solvable analytically, but with various nuclear models. These models are fairly successful in describing the behavior of the nuclei and the way the energy is distributed ( binding energy).

A third process that enters the problem is that neutrons are not stable, if they are not bound within a collective nuclear potential they decay ( beta decays of isotopes).

Qualitatively you can think that after a certain mass number (A) , the assumption of average density will be fairly good Too many protons would spoil the broth by repulsion, so the mass number is limited at the high end, too many neutrons would have outer energy level neutrons decay and this is also a limit. On the lower end of mass number, the number of nucleons in the nucleus is too small and the statistical arguments of density can no longer be a good approximation.

a)The electromagnetic one, where the charge of a proton repels the charge of another proton and no binding could occur

b) the strong force , the force that binds the quarks into the protons and neutrons, and spills over around each proton and neutron and is an attractive one.

From this you can understand that the number of particles that can be "bound" depends on the interplay of the repulsive and attractive forces and is a many body problem not solvable analytically, but with various nuclear models. These models are fairly successful in describing the behavior of the nuclei and the way the energy is distributed ( binding energy).

A third process that enters the problem is that neutrons are not stable, if they are not bound within a collective nuclear potential they decay ( beta decays of isotopes).

Qualitatively you can think that after a certain mass number (A) , the assumption of average density will be fairly good Too many protons would spoil the broth by repulsion, so the mass number is limited at the high end, too many neutrons would have outer energy level neutrons decay and this is also a limit. On the lower end of mass number, the number of nucleons in the nucleus is too small and the statistical arguments of density can no longer be a good approximation.

asked 2022-09-30

Mercury has a very large surface tension, but what causes this? Is that caused by the van der Waals forces because it has an high atomic number whereby there are a lot of electrons which makes mercury a kind op dipole because electrons are less binded to the core? Or are there other reasons? If not how does this metal compare to other heavy metals like gold?

And is this the same reason as why mercury is liquid at room temperature?

And is this the same reason as why mercury is liquid at room temperature?

asked 2022-11-26

The atomic mass of an element is equal to the ________ of an atom in the atomic mass unit.

asked 2022-11-04

Why is an electron in a radioactive decay indicated with a '-1' where the atomic number should be.

In the balanced equations of any radioactive decay every atom is represented as ${}_{y}^{x}Z$

Wherever an electronic is emitted the 'x' position is indicated by -1 and thus the atomic numbers balance.

But it never made sense to me why. I even tried googling but couldn't find what I needed.

Below is one such reaction for an example: ${}_{88}^{228}Ra{\u27f6}_{89}^{228}Ac{+}_{-1}^{0}e$

In the balanced equations of any radioactive decay every atom is represented as ${}_{y}^{x}Z$

Wherever an electronic is emitted the 'x' position is indicated by -1 and thus the atomic numbers balance.

But it never made sense to me why. I even tried googling but couldn't find what I needed.

Below is one such reaction for an example: ${}_{88}^{228}Ra{\u27f6}_{89}^{228}Ac{+}_{-1}^{0}e$

asked 2022-11-24

Evaluating ${\int}_{0}^{\mathrm{\infty}}\frac{\mathrm{ln}x}{{x}^{2}+2x+2}dx$

I tried to use completing the square and use the answers in the linked question but since the log term in the numerator has $x$ not $x+1$(after completing the square the quadratic is $(x+1{)}^{2}+1$) so that doesn't seem to work.

I tried to use completing the square and use the answers in the linked question but since the log term in the numerator has $x$ not $x+1$(after completing the square the quadratic is $(x+1{)}^{2}+1$) so that doesn't seem to work.

asked 2022-08-29

"Each such orbital can be occupied by a maximum of two electrons, each with its own spin quantum numbers."

I though that all electrons had same spin quantum number $s=1/2$, being the difference the $z$-component of the angular momentum, ${m}_{s}\in \{-1/2,1/2\}$.

I'm confusing the nomenclature ?

I though that all electrons had same spin quantum number $s=1/2$, being the difference the $z$-component of the angular momentum, ${m}_{s}\in \{-1/2,1/2\}$.

I'm confusing the nomenclature ?

asked 2022-09-05

$B=(Z\times mH+N\times mn-mA){c}^{2}$ , where $mH$ is the mass of Hydrogen, mn is the mass of the neutron and $mA$ the mass of the nucleus with atomic number $Z$, mass number $A$ and $N$ neutrons.

What is the mass defect for real?

What is the mass defect for real?

asked 2022-09-23

Isotope, One of the two or more species of atoms of a chemical element with the same atomic number and position in the periodic table and nearly identical chemical behaviour but with different atomic masses and physical properties. every chemical element has one or more Isotopes. 3 examples of isotopes. for example what these mass numbers denote before further progress?