# Explain the difference between Alternating Direction Method of Multipliers(ADMM) and coordinate descent (CD) . Question
Alternate coordinate systems Explain the difference between Alternating Direction Method of Multipliers(ADMM) and coordinate descent (CD) . 2021-02-04
The alrernating direction method of multipliers(ADMM) is an algorithm that solves convex optimization problems by breaking them into smoller pieces, each of which are them easier to handle. ot has recently found wide application in a number of areas but, coordinate descent is an optimization algotithm that successively minimizes along coordinate direction to find the minimum of a dunction. At each iteration, the algorithm determined a coordinate or coordinate blockvia a coordinate selection rule, then exectly or inerctly minimizes over the corresponding coordinates or coordinate block. Coordinate descent is applicable in both differentiable and devivative-free contexts.

### Relevant Questions The volume of the largest rectangular box which lies in the first octant with three faces in the coordinate planes and its one of the vertex in the plane $$\displaystyle{x}+{2}{y}+{3}{z}={6}$$ by using Lagrange multipliers. Since we will be using various bases and the coordinate systems they define, let's review how we translate between coordinate systems. a. Suppose that we have a basis$$\displaystyle{B}={\left\lbrace{v}_{{1}},{v}_{{2}},\ldots,{v}_{{m}}\right\rbrace}{f}{\quad\text{or}\quad}{R}^{{m}}$$. Explain what we mean by the representation {x}g of a vector x in the coordinate system defined by B. b. If we are given the representation $$\displaystyle{\left\lbrace{x}\right\rbrace}_{{B}},$$ how can we recover the vector x? c. If we are given the vector x, how can we find $$\displaystyle{\left\lbrace{x}\right\rbrace}_{{B}}$$? d. Suppose that BE is a basis for R^2. If {x}_B = \begin{bmatrix}1 \\ -2 \end{bmatrix}ZSK find the vector x. e. If $$\displaystyle{x}={b}{e}{g}\in{\left\lbrace{b}{m}{a}{t}{r}{i}{x}\right\rbrace}{2}\backslash-{4}{e}{n}{d}{\left\lbrace{b}{m}{a}{t}{r}{i}{x}\right\rbrace}{f}\in{d}{\left\lbrace{x}\right\rbrace}_{{B}}$$ (10%) In R^2, there are two sets of coordinate systems, represented by two distinct bases: (x_1, y_1) and (x_2, y_2). If the equations of the same ellipse represented by the two distinct bases are described as follows, respectively: 2(x_1)^2 -4(x_1)(y_1) + 5(y_1)^2 - 36 = 0 and (x_2)^2 + 6(y_2)^2 - 36 = 0. Find the transformation matrix between these two coordinate systems: (x_1, y_1) and (x_2, y_2). Convert between the coordinate systems. Use the conversion formulas and show work. Spherical: $$\displaystyle{\left({8},{\frac{{\pi}}{{{3}}}},{\frac{{\pi}}{{{6}}}}\right)}$$ Change to cylindrical. Consider the following vectors in $$\displaystyle{R}^{{4}}:$$ $$\displaystyle{v}_{{1}}={b}{e}{g}\in{\left\lbrace{b}{m}{a}{t}{r}{i}{x}\right\rbrace}{1}\backslash{1}\backslash{1}\backslash{1}{e}{n}{d}{\left\lbrace{b}{m}{a}{t}{r}{i}{x}\right\rbrace},{v}_{{2}}={b}{e}{g}\in{\left\lbrace{b}{m}{a}{t}{r}{i}{x}\right\rbrace}{0}\backslash{1}\backslash{1}\backslash{1}{e}{n}{d}{\left\lbrace{b}{m}{a}{t}{r}{i}{x}\right\rbrace}{v}_{{3}}={b}{e}{g}\in{\left\lbrace{b}{m}{a}{t}{r}{i}{x}\right\rbrace}{0}\backslash{0}\backslash{1}\backslash{1}{e}{n}{d}{\left\lbrace{b}{m}{a}{t}{r}{i}{x}\right\rbrace},{v}_{{4}}={b}{e}{g}\in{\left\lbrace{b}{m}{a}{t}{r}{i}{x}\right\rbrace}{0}\backslash{0}\backslash{0}\backslash{1}{e}{n}{d}{\left\lbrace{b}{m}{a}{t}{r}{i}{x}\right\rbrace}$$ a. Explain why $$\displaystyle{B}=\le{f}{t}{\left\lbrace{v}_{{1}},{v}_{{2}},{v}_{{3}},{v}_{{4}}{r}{i}{g}{h}{t}\right\rbrace}$$
forms a basis for $$\displaystyle{R}^{{4}}.$$ b. Explain how to convert $$\displaystyle\le{f}{t}{\left\lbrace{x}{r}{i}{g}{h}{t}\right\rbrace}_{{B}},$$ the representation of a vector x in the coordinates defined by B, into x, its representation in the standard coordinate system. c. Explain how to convert the vector x into,$$\displaystyle{\left\lbrace{x}\right\rbrace}_{{B}},$$ its representation in the coordinate system defined by B Let $$\displaystyle{B}=\le{f}{t}{\left\lbrace{b}{e}{g}\in{\left\lbrace{b}{m}{a}{t}{r}{i}{x}\right\rbrace}{1}\backslash-{2}{e}{n}{d}{\left\lbrace{b}{m}{a}{t}{r}{i}{x}\right\rbrace},{b}{e}{g}\in{\left\lbrace{b}{m}{a}{t}{r}{i}{x}\right\rbrace}{2}\backslash{1}{e}{n}{d}{\left\lbrace{b}{m}{a}{t}{r}{i}{x}\right\rbrace}{r}{i}{g}{h}{t}\right\rbrace}{\quad\text{and}\quad}{C}=\le{f}{t}{\left\lbrace{b}{e}{g}\in{\left\lbrace{b}{m}{a}{t}{r}{i}{x}\right\rbrace}{2}\backslash{1}{e}{n}{d}{\left\lbrace{b}{m}{a}{t}{r}{i}{x}\right\rbrace},{b}{e}{g}\in{\left\lbrace{b}{m}{a}{t}{r}{i}{x}\right\rbrace}{1}\backslash{3}{e}{n}{d}{\left\lbrace{b}{m}{a}{t}{r}{i}{x}\right\rbrace}{r}{i}{g}{h}{t}\right\rbrace}$$ be bases for R^2. Find the change-of-coordinate matrix from B to C. Let $$\displaystyle\gamma={\left\lbrace{t}^{{2}}-{t}+{1},{t}+{1},{t}^{{2}}+{1}\right\rbrace}{\quad\text{and}\quad}\beta={\left\lbrace{t}^{{2}}+{t}+{4},{4}{t}^{{2}}-{3}{t}+{2},{2}{t}^{{2}}+{3}\right\rbrace}{b}{e}{\quad\text{or}\quad}{d}{e}{r}{e}{d}{b}{a}{s}{e}{s}{f}{\quad\text{or}\quad}{P}_{{2}}{\left({R}\right)}.$$ Find the change of coordinate matrix Q that changes $$\displaystyle\beta{c}\infty{r}{d}\in{a}{t}{e}{s}\int{o}\gamma-{c}\infty{r}{d}\in{a}{t}{e}{s}$$ Consider the bases $$\displaystyle{B}={\left({b}{e}{g}\in{\left\lbrace{a}{r}{r}{a}{y}\right\rbrace}{\left\lbrace{c}\right\rbrace}{b}{e}{g}\in{\left\lbrace{b}{m}{a}{t}{r}{i}{x}\right\rbrace}{2}\backslash{3}{e}{n}{d}{\left\lbrace{b}{m}{a}{t}{r}{i}{x}\right\rbrace},{b}{e}{g}\in{\left\lbrace{b}{m}{a}{t}{r}{i}{x}\right\rbrace}{3}\backslash{5}{e}{n}{d}{\left\lbrace{b}{m}{a}{t}{r}{i}{x}\right\rbrace}{e}{n}{d}{\left\lbrace{a}{r}{r}{a}{y}\right\rbrace}\right)}{o}{f}{R}^{{2}}{\quad\text{and}\quad}{C}={\left({b}{e}{g}\in{\left\lbrace{a}{r}{r}{a}{y}\right\rbrace}{\left\lbrace{c}\right\rbrace}{b}{e}{g}\in{\left\lbrace{b}{m}{a}{t}{r}{i}{x}\right\rbrace}{1}\backslash{1}\backslash{0}{e}{n}{d}{\left\lbrace{b}{m}{a}{t}{r}{i}{x}\right\rbrace},{b}{e}{g}\in{\left\lbrace{b}{m}{a}{t}{r}{i}{x}\right\rbrace}{1}\backslash{0}\backslash{1}{e}{n}{d}{\left\lbrace{b}{m}{a}{t}{r}{i}{x}\right\rbrace}{e}{n}{d}{\left\lbrace{a}{r}{r}{a}{y}\right\rbrace},{b}{e}{g}\in{\left\lbrace{b}{m}{a}{t}{r}{i}{x}\right\rbrace}{0}\backslash{1}\backslash{1}{e}{n}{d}{\left\lbrace{b}{m}{a}{t}{r}{i}{x}\right\rbrace}\right)}{o}{f}{R}^{{3}}$$.
and the linear maps PSKS \in L (R^2, R^3) and T \in L(R^3, R^2) given given (with respect to the standard bases) by $$\displaystyle{\left[{S}\right]}_{{{E},{E}}}={b}{e}{g}\in{\left\lbrace{b}{m}{a}{t}{r}{i}{x}\right\rbrace}{2}&-{1}\backslash{5}&-{3}\backslash-{3}&{2}{e}{n}{d}{\left\lbrace{b}{m}{a}{t}{r}{i}{x}\right\rbrace}{\quad\text{and}\quad}{\left[{T}\right]}_{{{E},{E}}}={b}{e}{g}\in{\left\lbrace{b}{m}{a}{t}{r}{i}{x}\right\rbrace}{1}&-{1}&{1}\backslash{1}&{1}&-{1}{e}{n}{d}{\left\lbrace{b}{m}{a}{t}{r}{i}{x}\right\rbrace}$$ Find each of the following coordinate representations. $$\displaystyle{\left({b}\right)}{\left[{S}\right]}_{{{E},{C}}}$$
$$\displaystyle{\left({c}\right)}{\left[{S}\right]}_{{{B},{C}}}$$ Consider the bases $$\displaystyle{B}={\left({b}{e}{g}\in{\left\lbrace{a}{r}{r}{a}{y}\right\rbrace}{\left\lbrace{c}\right\rbrace}{b}{e}{g}\in{\left\lbrace{b}{m}{a}{t}{r}{i}{x}\right\rbrace}{2}\backslash{3}{e}{n}{d}{\left\lbrace{b}{m}{a}{t}{r}{i}{x}\right\rbrace},{b}{e}{g}\in{\left\lbrace{b}{m}{a}{t}{r}{i}{x}\right\rbrace}{3}\backslash{5}{e}{n}{d}{\left\lbrace{b}{m}{a}{t}{r}{i}{x}\right\rbrace}{e}{n}{d}{\left\lbrace{a}{r}{r}{a}{y}\right\rbrace}\right)}{o}{f}{R}^{{2}}{\quad\text{and}\quad}{C}={\left({b}{e}{g}\in{\left\lbrace{a}{r}{r}{a}{y}\right\rbrace}{\left\lbrace{c}\right\rbrace}{b}{e}{g}\in{\left\lbrace{b}{m}{a}{t}{r}{i}{x}\right\rbrace}{1}\backslash{1}\backslash{0}{e}{n}{d}{\left\lbrace{b}{m}{a}{t}{r}{i}{x}\right\rbrace},{b}{e}{g}\in{\left\lbrace{b}{m}{a}{t}{r}{i}{x}\right\rbrace}{1}\backslash{0}\backslash{1}{e}{n}{d}{\left\lbrace{b}{m}{a}{t}{r}{i}{x}\right\rbrace}{e}{n}{d}{\left\lbrace{a}{r}{r}{a}{y}\right\rbrace},{b}{e}{g}\in{\left\lbrace{b}{m}{a}{t}{r}{i}{x}\right\rbrace}{0}\backslash{1}\backslash{1}{e}{n}{d}{\left\lbrace{b}{m}{a}{t}{r}{i}{x}\right\rbrace}\right)}{o}{f}{R}^{{3}}$$.
and the linear maps PSKS \in L (R^2, R^3) and T \in L(R^3, R^2) given given (with respect to the standard bases) by $$\displaystyle{\left[{S}\right]}_{{{E},{E}}}={b}{e}{g}\in{\left\lbrace{b}{m}{a}{t}{r}{i}{x}\right\rbrace}{2}&-{1}\backslash{5}&-{3}\backslash-{3}&{2}{e}{n}{d}{\left\lbrace{b}{m}{a}{t}{r}{i}{x}\right\rbrace}{\quad\text{and}\quad}{\left[{T}\right]}_{{{E},{E}}}={b}{e}{g}\in{\left\lbrace{b}{m}{a}{t}{r}{i}{x}\right\rbrace}{1}&-{1}&{1}\backslash{1}&{1}&-{1}{e}{n}{d}{\left\lbrace{b}{m}{a}{t}{r}{i}{x}\right\rbrace}$$ Find each of the following coordinate representations. $$\displaystyle{\left({a}\right)}{\left[{S}\right]}_{{{B},{E}}}$$ (a) Find the bases and dimension for the subspace $$\displaystyle{H}=\le{f}{t}{\left\lbrace{b}{e}{g}\in{\left\lbrace{b}{m}{a}{t}{r}{i}{x}\right\rbrace}{3}{a}+{6}{b}-{c}\backslash{6}{a}-{2}{b}-{2}{c}\backslash-{9}{a}+{5}{b}+{3}{c}\backslash-{3}{a}+{b}+{c}{e}{n}{d}{\left\lbrace{b}{m}{a}{t}{r}{i}{x}\right\rbrace},{a},{b},{c}\in{R}{r}{i}{g}{h}{t}\right\rbrace}$$ (b) Let be bases for a vector space V,and suppose (i) Find the change of coordinate matrix from B toD. (ii) Find $$\displaystyle{\left[{x}\right]}_{{D}}{f}{\quad\text{or}\quad}{x}={3}{b}_{{1}}-{2}{b}_{{2}}+{b}_{{3}}$$