Lloyd Allen

2021-11-24

Are the bonds in each of the following substances ionic, nonpolar covalent, or polar covalent? Arrange the substances with polar covalent bonds in order of increasing bond polarity:
(a) KCl,
(b) ${P}_{4}$,
(c) $B{F}_{3}$,
(d) $S{O}_{2}$,
(e) $B{r}_{2}$,
(f) $N{O}_{2}$

Abel Maynard

Step 1
a) K Cl: Ionic
b) ${P}_{4}$ : Nonpolar covalent
c) $B{F}_{3}$ : Polar covalent
d) $S{O}_{2}$ : Polar covalent
e) $B{r}_{2}$ : Nonpolar covalent
f) $N{O}_{2}$ : Polar covalent
$N{O}_{2}

Alicia Washington

Step 1
(a) Ionic
(b) Nonpolar covalent
(c) Polar covalent
(d) Polar covalent
(e) Nonpolar covalent
(f) Polar covalent
Step 2
Are the bonds in each of the following substances ionic, nonpolar covalent, or polar covalent?
The nature of a bond depends on the modulus of the difference of electronegativity $\left(|\mathrm{\Delta }EN|\right)$ between the atoms that form it.
1) If $|\mathrm{\Delta }EN|=0$, the bond nonpolar covalent
2) If $0<|\mathrm{\Delta }EN|\le 2$, the bond is polar covalent.
3) If $|\mathrm{\Delta }EN|>2$, the bond is ionic.
Step 3
a) K Cl $=|\mathrm{\Delta }EN|=|EN\left(K\right)-EN\left(Cl\right)|=|0.8-3.0|=2.2$ The bond is ionic.
b) ${P}_{4}=|\mathrm{\Delta }EN|=|EN\left(P\right)-EN\left(P\right)|=|2.1-2.1|=0.0$ The bond is nonpolar covalent.
c) $B{F}_{3}=|\mathrm{\Delta }EN|=|EN\left(B\right)-EN\left(F\right)|=|2.0-4.0|=2.0$ The bond is polar covalent.
d) $S{O}_{2}=|\mathrm{\Delta }EN|=|EN\left(S\right)-EN\left(O\right)|=|2.5-3.5|=1.0$ The bond is polar covalent.
e) $B{r}_{2}=|\mathrm{\Delta }EN|=|EN\left(Br\right)-EN\left(Br\right)|=|2.8-2.8|=0.0$ The bond is nonpolar covalent.
f) $N{O}_{2}=|\mathrm{\Delta }EN|=|EN\left(N\right)-EN\left(O\right)|=|3.0-3.5|=0.5$ The bond is polar covalent.

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