Qualitative variables/Categorical variables:
The variable that describes about the characteristic or attribute which has distinct categories is termed as qualitative variables. In other words, these variables divide the cases into two or more groups based on the characteristic. For example, genders, literacy, sex, are the examples for qualitative variables.
The variable that records a numerical quantity is termed as quantitative variable. In other words, these variables can be counted or measured. Age of people, heights of students, land area are some of the examples for quantitative variables.
Here, the researcher assigns 1 for Male and 2 for Female. It is observed that categorization is done in the study of Gender variable. Therefore, the gender data is a qualitative.