Community psychology is the branch of psychology that examines individual interactions in society and how environmental factors affects individual functioning and societal factors. The emphasizes is on "human as a social being" that is the situational factors linked to the manifestation of behavior is considered crucial to understanding while working for community welfare. This emphasizes is also known as an ecological perspective. This implies that while helping an individual of the society various layers likes family, educational institutes, neighborhood, cultural parties, political scenarios and national issues should be considered.
One prominent ecological systems theory was given by Urie Bronfenbrenner. He proposed that development was influenced by social environment of the individual and he divided individual environment into the following systems.
- The microsystems
- The mesosystems
- The exosystems
- The macrosystems
- The chronosystems.
- The developed personal network is a great source of support in times of crises.
The microsystems include the immediate environment. It includes family, daily home, educational institutes, daycare and interactions with peers, caregivers, teachers.
The mesosystems includes the interaction of different microsystems. For example, parents-teacher meets, parent interacting with their child's friends or child-religious personnel.
The exosystems that are not directly related to the person but with significant others in their environment that will have an impact on them. For example, the children that feel sad or depressed because they are unbaled to spend time with their fathers because the father is busy earning.
The macrosystems include cultural ideas, economic and political systems, For example, the belief of group harmony or personals growth, war, autocratic ruler's, democracy
The chronosystems accounts for the impact that changes with change in the immediate environment. For example, parental employment status, parental marital status, changes in family structure.
According to the ecological perspective, the process of bereavement will be influenced by individual and contextual factors, the interdependence of both systems determine the nature of the process. The presence of significant others like friends family members might provide social support, care, empathy, hope that helps the individual deal with such challenging situations. For example, if a child has lost his parents, than interactions with friends is helpful. If the child belongs to higher economic status than they do not have to worry about the financial aids from government, however, the appointed caregivers (mostly a family member) will help the child they achieve independence. The support of the primary caregiver will become essential to adapt to emotional turmoil and change in family structure.
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