A quadrilateral ABCD is formed from four distinct points (called the vertices), no three of which are collinear, and from the segments AB, CB, CD, and DA (called the sides), which have no intersections except at those endpoints labeled by the same letter. The notation for this quadrilateral is not unique- e.g., quadrilateral quadrilateral CBAD.
Two vertices that are endpoints of a side are called adjacent; otherwise the two vertices are called opposite. The remaining pair of segments AC and BD formed from the four points are called diagonals of the quadrilateral; they may or may not intersect at some fifth point. If X, Y, Z are the vertices of quadrilateral ABCD such that Y is adjacent to both X and Z, then angle XYZ is called an angle of the quadrilateral; if W is the fourth vertex, then angle XWZ and angle XYZ are called opposite angles.
The quadrilaterals of main interest are the convex ones. By definition, they are the quadrilaterals such that each pair of opposite sides, e.g., AB and CD, has the property that CD is contained in one of the half-planes bounded by the line through A and B, and AB is contained in one of the half-planes bounded by the line through C and D.
a) Using Pasch's theorem, prove that if one pair of opposite sides has this property, then so does the other pair of opposite sides.
b) Prove, using the crossbar theorem, that the following are equivalent:
1. The quadrilateral is convex.
2. Each vertex of the quadrilateral lies in the interior of the opposite angle.
3. The diagonals of the quadrilateral meet.