A few remarks:

I don't know of a systematic study of ordered fields with many examples, but I can provide a few references as well as a list of types of ordered fields. For a general algebraic approach to ordered fields, you can look up the chapter "Ordered fields" in Serge Lang's Algebra. For notes about formally real fields or orderable fields, you can look at the work of Artin and Schreier. Most introductive books to model theory and its applications to algebra have a chapter about real closed fields.

Also, the book Super-real fields of Dale and Woodin studies set-theoretic properties of a class of real closed fields vaguely related to non-standard analysis, but this is not really something you need to look into unless you're interested in set theory.

As for gaining perspective on ordered fields, for good presentations of the role of different types of ordered fields in the conception of infinitesimals and continua, I suggest you look into the work of Philip Ehrlich, e.g. this one and here.

Examples of ordered fields

Here is a list of important types of ordered fields that are most frequently encountered.

-Archimedean ordered fields, in particular R, Q, and the field A of real algebraic numbers.

-Given a linear order E, and an ordered field F, the field F(E) of fractions of polynomials with indeterminates in E, see here in the case when F=Q. In particular, the field $F(X)\cong F(1)$ of rationnal functions with coefficients in F.

-Given a linearly ordered abelian group G, and an ordered field F, the field F[[G]] of Hahn series with value group G and residue field F.

-Given an ordered field F and a free ultrafilter $\mathcal{U}$ on an infinite set I, the ultrapower ${}^{\ast}{F}_{\mathcal{U}}$ of F modulo $\mathcal{U}$, and especially the important case when F=R and I=N.

-Given a ε-number $\lambda $, the field No($\lambda $) of surreal numbers with birthdate strictly below $\lambda $, see here.

-Fields of real valued functions, in particular Hardy fields, see here for a perspective on those with respect to real asymptotic differential algebra.

-Fields of transseries, in particular logarithmic-exponential transseries, see here (careful: this article is about a different type of transseries than that mentionned in the Wikipedia article) or here (first preprint in the list).

Two functorial constructions

Important constructions within the class of ordered fields are the real closure and the Cauchy completion. Most of the examples above are already real-closed but few are Cauchy-complete, so this produces new examples of ordered fields.

The real closure construction ${F}_{real}$ and Cauchy completion construction ${F}_{Cauchy}$ are functors, in contrast with the algebraic closure for fields of a given characteristic). The corresponding categories are reflective within the category of ordered fields with certain types of morphisms. Moreover, we have ${F}_{Cauchy}\circ {F}_{real}\cong {F}_{real}\circ {F}_{Cauchy}\circ {F}_{real}$ (i.e. the Cauchy completion of a real-closed field remains real-closed). This makes it is easy to manipulate them in conjunction.

Universal formulas

In model theory, given a first order language, a universal formula is a formula $\varphi [\overline{x}]$ of the form $\mathrm{\forall}\overline{u}(\theta [\overline{x},\overline{u}])$ where $\theta [\overline{x},\overline{u}]$ is quantifier-free.

Given a theory T, a formula $\phi [u]$ is said logically equivalent to a universal formula modulo T if there is a quantifer-free formula $\varphi [\overline{x}]$such that $T\u22a2\mathrm{\forall}\overline{x}(\phi [\overline{x}]\leftrightarrow \varphi [\overline{x}])$. It is equivalent that $\phi [\overline{x}]$ be preserved by substructures, i.e. that for all models $\mathcal{M}\subseteq \mathcal{N}$ of T and $\overline{a}\in {M}^{n}$, that $\mathcal{M}\models \phi [\overline{a}]$ be equivalent to $\mathcal{N}\models \phi [\overline{a}]$.

In particular, if φ is a such a sentence in the language of ordered fields which one can prove for real closed fields, then since every ordered field embeds in a real-closed field (in particular, in its real closure), it is true in any ordered field.

By Tarski's work, the theory of real closed fields is elementary and complete, so it suffices to prove a first order result in R (or any other real closed field, but R is quite unique) to derive it in any ordered field. You will find Tarksi's result in any model theory book mentioning real closed fields.

Notice that if you take a sufficiently big cardinal κ and a free ultrafilter $\mathcal{U}$ on κ, then ${}^{\ast}{\mathbb{R}}_{\mathcal{U}}$ contains any ordered field you want, so you can prove this only in this case. Likewise, No(κ) contains all ordered fields if κ is sufficiently big.

Quadratic extensions

If a formally real field k is such that for $a\in {k}^{\times}$, either a is a square or −a is a square (but not both), then it is uniquely ordered by saying that an element is positive if it is a square. In fact this is an equivalence, since given a in an ordered field F such that neither a nor −a are squares, the field $F[\sqrt{a}]$ admits two orders: one where $\sqrt{a}>0$ and one where $\sqrt{a}<0$. If one iterates quadratic extensions by square roots of elements a such that −a has no square root, then one obtains such a field with exactly one compatible (and easily defined) order. This may not be the classical result you were told about.