# Explain the meaning of the phrase " the sampling distribution of the sample statistic A"

Question
Sampling distributions
Explain the meaning of the phrase " the sampling distribution of the sample statistic A"

2021-02-26
It is given that A is calculated using a specified formula of the sample measurements.
The meaning of the given phrase "the samping distribution of the sample statistic A" is the probability distribution of the random variable A.

### Relevant Questions

A random sample of $$n_1 = 14$$ winter days in Denver gave a sample mean pollution index $$x_1 = 43$$.
Previous studies show that $$\sigma_1 = 19$$.
For Englewood (a suburb of Denver), a random sample of $$n_2 = 12$$ winter days gave a sample mean pollution index of $$x_2 = 37$$.
Previous studies show that $$\sigma_2 = 13$$.
Assume the pollution index is normally distributed in both Englewood and Denver.
(a) State the null and alternate hypotheses.
$$H_0:\mu_1=\mu_2.\mu_1>\mu_2$$
$$H_0:\mu_1<\mu_2.\mu_1=\mu_2$$
$$H_0:\mu_1=\mu_2.\mu_1<\mu_2$$
$$H_0:\mu_1=\mu_2.\mu_1\neq\mu_2$$
(b) What sampling distribution will you use? What assumptions are you making? NKS The Student's t. We assume that both population distributions are approximately normal with known standard deviations.
The standard normal. We assume that both population distributions are approximately normal with unknown standard deviations.
The standard normal. We assume that both population distributions are approximately normal with known standard deviations.
The Student's t. We assume that both population distributions are approximately normal with unknown standard deviations.
(c) What is the value of the sample test statistic? Compute the corresponding z or t value as appropriate.
(Test the difference $$\mu_1 - \mu_2$$. Round your answer to two decimal places.) NKS (d) Find (or estimate) the P-value. (Round your answer to four decimal places.)
(e) Based on your answers in parts (i)−(iii), will you reject or fail to reject the null hypothesis? Are the data statistically significant at level \alpha?
At the $$\alpha = 0.01$$ level, we fail to reject the null hypothesis and conclude the data are not statistically significant.
At the $$\alpha = 0.01$$ level, we reject the null hypothesis and conclude the data are statistically significant.
At the $$\alpha = 0.01$$ level, we fail to reject the null hypothesis and conclude the data are statistically significant.
At the $$\alpha = 0.01$$ level, we reject the null hypothesis and conclude the data are not statistically significant.
(f) Interpret your conclusion in the context of the application.
Reject the null hypothesis, there is insufficient evidence that there is a difference in mean pollution index for Englewood and Denver.
Reject the null hypothesis, there is sufficient evidence that there is a difference in mean pollution index for Englewood and Denver.
Fail to reject the null hypothesis, there is insufficient evidence that there is a difference in mean pollution index for Englewood and Denver.
Fail to reject the null hypothesis, there is sufficient evidence that there is a difference in mean pollution index for Englewood and Denver. (g) Find a 99% confidence interval for
$$\mu_1 - \mu_2$$.
lower limit
upper limit
(h) Explain the meaning of the confidence interval in the context of the problem.
Because the interval contains only positive numbers, this indicates that at the 99% confidence level, the mean population pollution index for Englewood is greater than that of Denver.
Because the interval contains both positive and negative numbers, this indicates that at the 99% confidence level, we can not say that the mean population pollution index for Englewood is different than that of Denver.
Because the interval contains both positive and negative numbers, this indicates that at the 99% confidence level, the mean population pollution index for Englewood is greater than that of Denver.
Because the interval contains only negative numbers, this indicates that at the 99% confidence level, the mean population pollution index for Englewood is less than that of Denver.
Which of the following statements about the sampling distribution of the sample mean is incorrect?
(a) The standard deviation of the sampling distribution will decrease as the sample size increases.
(b) The standard deviation of the sampling distribution is a measure of the variability of the sample mean among repeated samples.
(c) The sample mean is an unbiased estimator of the population mean.
(d) The sampling distribution shows how the sample mean will vary in repeated samples.
(e) The sampling distribution shows how the sample was distributed around the sample mean.
The correct statement which is incorrect from the options about the sampling distribution of the sample mean
(a) the standard deviation of the sampling distribution will decrease as the sample size increases,
(b) the standard deviation of the sampling distribution is a measure of the variability of the sample mean among repeated samples,
(c) the sample mean is an unbiased estimator of the true population mean,
(d) the sampling distribution shows how the sample mean will vary in repeated samples,
(e) the sampling distributions shows how the sample was distributed around the sample mean.
The distribution of height for a certain population of women is approximately normal with mean 65 inches and standard deviation 3.5 inches. Consider two different random samples taken from the population, one of size 5 and one of size 85.
Which of the following is true about the sampling distributions of the sample mean for the two sample sizes?
Both distributions are approximately normal with mean 65 and standard deviation 3.5.
A
Both distributions are approximately normal. The mean and standard deviation for size 5 are both less than the mean and standard deviation for size 85.
B
Both distributions are approximately normal with the same mean. The standard deviation for size 5 is greater than that for size 85.
C
Only the distribution for size 85 is approximately normal. Both distributions have mean 65 and standard deviation 3.5.
D
Only the distribution for size 85 is approximately normal. The mean and standard deviation for size 5 are both less than the mean and standard deviation for size 85.
E
Critical Thinking Let x be a random variable representing the amount of sleep each adult in New York City got last night. Consider a sampling distribution of sample means $$\overline{x}$$.
What value will the standard deviation $$\sigma_{\overline{x}}$$ of the sampling distribution approach?
Which of the following is true about the sampling distribution of means?
A. Shape of the sampling distribution of means is always the same shape as the population distribution, no matter what the sample size is.
B. Sampling distributions of means are always nearly normal.
C. Sampling distributions of means get closer to normality as the sample size increases.
D. Sampling distribution of the mean is always right skewed since means cannot be smaller than 0.
Explain whether the central limit theorem can be applied and assert that the sampling distributions of A and Bare approximately normal, if the sample sizes of A and Bare large.
Which of the following is true about sampling distributions?
-Shape of the sampling distribution is always the same shape as the population distribution, no matter what the sample size is.
-Sampling distributions are always nearly normal.
-Sampling distribution of the mean is always right skewed since means cannot be smaller than 0.
-Sampling distributions get closer to normality as the sample size increases.
Explain the meaning of assertion that A is an unbiased estimator of $$\alpha$$
1. The accuracy of the approximation it provides, improves when the trial success proportion p is closer to $$50\%$$