Here we compare two population from same group.
Group: Teacher (only one) population: i) use internet for sending mail for profesional activities ii) for student activities

Question

asked 2021-01-22

TWO GROUPS OR ONE?
Situations comparing two proportions are described. In each case, determine whether the situation involves comparing proportions for two groups or comparing two proportions from the same group. State whether the methods of this section apply to the difference in proportions.
(c) Compare the graduation rate (proportion to graduate) of students on an athletic scholarship to the graduation rate of students who are not on an athletic scholarship. This situation involves comparing: 1 group or 2 groups? Do the methods of this section apply to the difference in proportions? Yes or No

asked 2021-01-27

Situations comparing two proportions are described. In each case, determine whether the situation involves comparing proportions for two groups or comparing two proportions from the same group (1 point each)
a. Compare the proportion of U.S. adults who have a positive opinion about the media versus those who have a negative opinion about the media.
A) Comparing proportions for two groups
B) Comparing two proportions from the same group
b. Compare the proportion of female students at a university who live in a dorm to the proportion of male students at a university who live in a dorm
A) Comparing proportions for two groups
B) Comparing two proportions from the same group

asked 2021-03-06

Determine whether the situation involves comparing proportions for two groups or comparing two proportions from a single group. Then state whether the parameter of interest is in population proportions.
For a population of all LCCC students, we would like to compare the proportion of students who use a Windows-based PC to the proportion who use a Mac.
This situation involves ? and the parameter of interest is ?
For a population of all registered voters in the United States, we would like to compare the males who voted in the last election to the proportion of females who voted in the last election.
This situation involves ? and the parameter of interest is ?

asked 2020-10-23

The table below shows the number of people for three different race groups who were shot by police that were either armed or unarmed. These values are very close to the exact numbers. They have been changed slightly for each student to get a unique problem.

Suspect was Armed:

Black - 543

White - 1176

Hispanic - 378

Total - 2097

Suspect was unarmed:

Black - 60

White - 67

Hispanic - 38

Total - 165

Total:

Black - 603

White - 1243

Hispanic - 416

Total - 2262

Give your answer as a decimal to at least three decimal places.

a) What percent are Black?

b) What percent are Unarmed?

c) In order for two variables to be Independent of each other, the P \((A and B) = P(A) \cdot P(B) P(A and B) = P(A) \cdot P(B).\)

This just means that the percentage of times that both things happen equals the individual percentages multiplied together (Only if they are Independent of each other).

Therefore, if a person's race is independent of whether they were killed being unarmed then the percentage of black people that are killed while being unarmed should equal the percentage of blacks times the percentage of Unarmed. Let's check this. Multiply your answer to part a (percentage of blacks) by your answer to part b (percentage of unarmed).

Remember, the previous answer is only correct if the variables are Independent.

d) Now let's get the real percent that are Black and Unarmed by using the table?

If answer c is "significantly different" than answer d, then that means that there could be a different percentage of unarmed people being shot based on race. We will check this out later in the course.

Let's compare the percentage of unarmed shot for each race.

e) What percent are White and Unarmed?

f) What percent are Hispanic and Unarmed?

If you compare answers d, e and f it shows the highest percentage of unarmed people being shot is most likely white.

Why is that?

This is because there are more white people in the United States than any other race and therefore there are likely to be more white people in the table. Since there are more white people in the table, there most likely would be more white and unarmed people shot by police than any other race. This pulls the percentage of white and unarmed up. In addition, there most likely would be more white and armed shot by police. All the percentages for white people would be higher, because there are more white people. For example, the table contains very few Hispanic people, and the percentage of people in the table that were Hispanic and unarmed is the lowest percentage.

Think of it this way. If you went to a college that was 90% female and 10% male, then females would most likely have the highest percentage of A grades. They would also most likely have the highest percentage of B, C, D and F grades

The correct way to compare is "conditional probability". Conditional probability is getting the probability of something happening, given we are dealing with just the people in a particular group.

g) What percent of blacks shot and killed by police were unarmed?

h) What percent of whites shot and killed by police were unarmed?

i) What percent of Hispanics shot and killed by police were unarmed?

You can see by the answers to part g and h, that the percentage of blacks that were unarmed and killed by police is approximately twice that of whites that were unarmed and killed by police.

j) Why do you believe this is happening?

Do a search on the internet for reasons why blacks are more likely to be killed by police. Read a few articles on the topic. Write your response using the articles as references. Give the websites used in your response. Your answer should be several sentences long with at least one website listed. This part of this problem will be graded after the due date.

Suspect was Armed:

Black - 543

White - 1176

Hispanic - 378

Total - 2097

Suspect was unarmed:

Black - 60

White - 67

Hispanic - 38

Total - 165

Total:

Black - 603

White - 1243

Hispanic - 416

Total - 2262

Give your answer as a decimal to at least three decimal places.

a) What percent are Black?

b) What percent are Unarmed?

c) In order for two variables to be Independent of each other, the P \((A and B) = P(A) \cdot P(B) P(A and B) = P(A) \cdot P(B).\)

This just means that the percentage of times that both things happen equals the individual percentages multiplied together (Only if they are Independent of each other).

Therefore, if a person's race is independent of whether they were killed being unarmed then the percentage of black people that are killed while being unarmed should equal the percentage of blacks times the percentage of Unarmed. Let's check this. Multiply your answer to part a (percentage of blacks) by your answer to part b (percentage of unarmed).

Remember, the previous answer is only correct if the variables are Independent.

d) Now let's get the real percent that are Black and Unarmed by using the table?

If answer c is "significantly different" than answer d, then that means that there could be a different percentage of unarmed people being shot based on race. We will check this out later in the course.

Let's compare the percentage of unarmed shot for each race.

e) What percent are White and Unarmed?

f) What percent are Hispanic and Unarmed?

If you compare answers d, e and f it shows the highest percentage of unarmed people being shot is most likely white.

Why is that?

This is because there are more white people in the United States than any other race and therefore there are likely to be more white people in the table. Since there are more white people in the table, there most likely would be more white and unarmed people shot by police than any other race. This pulls the percentage of white and unarmed up. In addition, there most likely would be more white and armed shot by police. All the percentages for white people would be higher, because there are more white people. For example, the table contains very few Hispanic people, and the percentage of people in the table that were Hispanic and unarmed is the lowest percentage.

Think of it this way. If you went to a college that was 90% female and 10% male, then females would most likely have the highest percentage of A grades. They would also most likely have the highest percentage of B, C, D and F grades

The correct way to compare is "conditional probability". Conditional probability is getting the probability of something happening, given we are dealing with just the people in a particular group.

g) What percent of blacks shot and killed by police were unarmed?

h) What percent of whites shot and killed by police were unarmed?

i) What percent of Hispanics shot and killed by police were unarmed?

You can see by the answers to part g and h, that the percentage of blacks that were unarmed and killed by police is approximately twice that of whites that were unarmed and killed by police.

j) Why do you believe this is happening?

Do a search on the internet for reasons why blacks are more likely to be killed by police. Read a few articles on the topic. Write your response using the articles as references. Give the websites used in your response. Your answer should be several sentences long with at least one website listed. This part of this problem will be graded after the due date.

asked 2021-01-27

Prove an example of two independent samples and another example of dependent samples providing your reasoning
To compare two means or two proportions, one works with two groups. The group are classfied either aas independent or matched pairs. Independent groups meam that the two samples taken are independent, that is, sample values selected from one population are not related in any way to sample values selected from the other population. Matched pairs consist of two samples that are dependent. The parameter tested using matched pairs is the population mean. The parameters tested using independent groups are either population means or population proportion.

asked 2021-01-27

\(\displaystyle{b}{e}{g}\in{\left\lbrace{a}{r}{r}{a}{y}\right\rbrace}{\left\lbrace{\left|{c}\right|}{c}{\mid}\right\rbrace}{h}{l}\in{e}&{H}{o}{u}{s}{e}{w}{\quad\text{or}\quad}{k}{H}{o}{u}{r}{s}\backslash{h}{l}\in{e}{G}{e}{n}{d}{e}{r}&{S}{a}\mp\le\ {S}{i}{z}{e}&{M}{e}{a}{n}&{S}{\tan{{d}}}{a}{r}{d}\ {D}{e}{v}{i}{a}{t}{i}{o}{n}\backslash{h}{l}\in{e}{W}{o}{m}{e}{n}&{473473}&{33.133}{.1}&{14.214}{.2}\backslash{h}{l}\in{e}{M}{e}{n}&{488488}&{18.618}{.6}&{15.715}{.7}\backslash{e}{n}{d}{\left\lbrace{a}{r}{r}{a}{y}\right\rbrace}\)
a. Based on this study, calculate how many more hours per week, on the average, women spend on housework than men.
b. Find the standard error for comparing the means. What factor causes the standard error to be small compared to the sample standard deviations for the two groups?
The cause the standard error to be small compared to the sample standard deviations for the two groups.
c. Calculate the 95% confidence interval comparing the population means for women
Interpret the result including the relevance of 0 being within the interval or not.
The 95% confidence interval for
\(\displaystyle{\left(\mu_{{W}}-\mu_{{M}}\right)}\)
is: (Round to two decimal places as needed.)
The values in the 95% confidence interval
are less than 0,
are greater than 0,
include 0,
which implies that the population mean for women
could be the same as
is less than
is greater than
the population mean for men.
d. State the assumptions upon which the interval in part c is based.
Upon which assumptions below is the interval based? Select all that apply.
A.The standard deviations of the two populations are approximately equal.
B.The population distribution for each group is approximately normal.
C.The samples from the two groups are independent.
D.The samples from the two groups are random.

asked 2021-01-10

GIve a correct answer for this question: when we are comparing two population means from two groups (suppose they are called Group 1 and Group 2), which of the following statistics do we use to make a confidence interval or perform a hypothesis test for a difference in means?

asked 2020-12-05

Solve given Inferences involving two populations Inference about two Population Proportions:

Independent Samples:

A government housing agency is comparing home ownership rates among several immigrant groups. In a sample of 235 families who emigrated to the U.S. from Eastern Europe five years ago, 165 now own homes. In a sample of 195 families who emigrated to the U.S. from Pacific islands five years ago, 125 now own homes.

Independent Samples:

A government housing agency is comparing home ownership rates among several immigrant groups. In a sample of 235 families who emigrated to the U.S. from Eastern Europe five years ago, 165 now own homes. In a sample of 195 families who emigrated to the U.S. from Pacific islands five years ago, 125 now own homes.

asked 2020-11-01

Identify the appropriate hypothesis test for each of the following research situations using the options: The null hypothesis, The Test Statistics, The Sample Statistic, The Standard Error, and The Alpha Level.

A researcher conducts a cross-sectional developmental study to determine whether there is a significant difference in vocabulary skills between 8-year-old and 10-year-old children. A researcher determines that 8% of the males enrolled in Introductory Psychology have some form of color blindness, compared to only 2% of the females. Is there a significant relationship between color blindness and gender?

A researcher records the daily sugar consumption and the activity level for each of 20 children enrolled in a summer camp program. The researcher would like to determine whether there is a significant relationship between sugar consumption and activity level.

A researcher would like to determine whether a 4-week therapy program produces significant changes in behavior. A group of 25 participants is measured before therapy, at the end of therapy, and again 3 months after therapy.

A researcher would like to determine whether a new program for teaching mathematics is significantly better than the old program. It is suspected that the new program will be very effective for small-group instruction but probably will not work well with large classes. The research study involves comparing four groups of students: a small class taught by the new method, a large class taught by the new method, a small class taught by the old method, and a large class taught by the old method.

A researcher conducts a cross-sectional developmental study to determine whether there is a significant difference in vocabulary skills between 8-year-old and 10-year-old children. A researcher determines that 8% of the males enrolled in Introductory Psychology have some form of color blindness, compared to only 2% of the females. Is there a significant relationship between color blindness and gender?

A researcher records the daily sugar consumption and the activity level for each of 20 children enrolled in a summer camp program. The researcher would like to determine whether there is a significant relationship between sugar consumption and activity level.

A researcher would like to determine whether a 4-week therapy program produces significant changes in behavior. A group of 25 participants is measured before therapy, at the end of therapy, and again 3 months after therapy.

A researcher would like to determine whether a new program for teaching mathematics is significantly better than the old program. It is suspected that the new program will be very effective for small-group instruction but probably will not work well with large classes. The research study involves comparing four groups of students: a small class taught by the new method, a large class taught by the new method, a small class taught by the old method, and a large class taught by the old method.

asked 2020-12-28

Is statistical inference intuitive to babies? In other words, are babies able to generalize from sample to population? In this study,1 8-month-old infants watched someone draw a sample of five balls from an opaque box. Each sample consisted of four balls of one color (red or white) and one ball of the other color. After observing the sample, the side of the box was lifted so the infants could see all of the balls inside (the population). Some boxes had an “expected” population, with balls in the same color proportions as the sample, while other boxes had an “unexpected” population, with balls in the opposite color proportion from the sample. Babies looked at the unexpected populations for an average of 9.9 seconds (sd = 4.5 seconds) and the expected populations for an average of 7.5 seconds (sd = 4.2 seconds). The sample size in each group was 20, and you may assume the data in each group are reasonably normally distributed. Is this convincing evidence that babies look longer at the unexpected population, suggesting that they make inferences about the population from the sample?
Let group 1 and group 2 be the time spent looking at the unexpected and expected populations, respectively.
A) Calculate the relevant sample statistic.
Enter the exact answer.
Sample statistic: _____
B) Calculate the t-statistic.
Round your answer to two decimal places.
t-statistic = ___________
C) Find the p-value.
Round your answer to three decimal places.
p-value =