# Juan makes a measurement in a chemistry laboratory and records the result in his lab report. The stardard deviation of lab measurements made by students is sigma=10 milligrams. Juan repeats the measurement 3 times and records the mean xbar of his 3 measurements. (a) What is the standard deviation of Juan's mean result? (That is, if Juan kept making sets of 3 measurements and averaging them, what would be the standard deviation of all his xbar's?) (b) How many times must juan repeat the measurement to reduce the standard deviation of xbar to5? Explain to someone who knows nothing about statistics the advantage of reporting the average of several measurements rather than the result of a single measurement.

Question
Measurement
Juan makes a measurement in a chemistry laboratory and records the result in his lab report. The stardard deviation of lab measurements made by students is $$\sigma=10$$ milligrams. Juan repeats the measurement 3 times and records the mean xbar of his 3 measurements.
(a) What is the standard deviation of Juan's mean result? (That is, if Juan kept making sets of 3 measurements and averaging them, what would be the standard deviation of all his xbar's?)
(b) How many times must juan repeat the measurement to reduce the standard deviation of xbar to5? Explain to someone who knows nothing about statistics the advantage of reporting the average of several measurements rather than the result of a single measurement.

2020-12-25
Step 1
Given,
The standard deviation of lab measurements made by students is $$\sigma = 10$$ milligrams.
Sample size is $$n = 3$$
Now, the standard deviation of the sampling distribution is given by,
$$\sigma_{\overline{x}}=\frac{\sigma}{\sqrt{n}}$$
Step 2
a)
$$\sigma_{\overline{x}}=\frac{\sigma}{\sqrt{n}}$$
$$=\frac{10}{\sqrt{3}}=5.7735$$
b)
$$\sigma_{\overline{x}}=\frac{\sigma}{\sqrt{n}}$$
$$5=\frac{10}{\sqrt{n}}$$
$$\sqrt{n}=\frac{10}{5}$$
$$\sqrt{n}=2\Rightarrow n=4$$
Juan must repeat the measurement 4 times to reduce the standard deviation of xbar to5
Reporting the average of several measurements has more advantage than the result of a single measurement. Since, the average of several measurements is more likely to be closer to the mean, than the result of a single measurement.

### Relevant Questions

Juan makes a measurement in a chemistry laboratory and records the result in his lab report. The standard deviation of students lab measurements is $$\sigma= 8$$ milligrams. Juan repeats the measurement 2 times and records the mean x of his 2 measurements. What is the standard deviation of Juan's mean result?

A random sample of $$n_1 = 14$$ winter days in Denver gave a sample mean pollution index $$x_1 = 43$$.
Previous studies show that $$\sigma_1 = 19$$.
For Englewood (a suburb of Denver), a random sample of $$n_2 = 12$$ winter days gave a sample mean pollution index of $$x_2 = 37$$.
Previous studies show that $$\sigma_2 = 13$$.
Assume the pollution index is normally distributed in both Englewood and Denver.
(a) State the null and alternate hypotheses.
$$H_0:\mu_1=\mu_2.\mu_1>\mu_2$$
$$H_0:\mu_1<\mu_2.\mu_1=\mu_2$$
$$H_0:\mu_1=\mu_2.\mu_1<\mu_2$$
$$H_0:\mu_1=\mu_2.\mu_1\neq\mu_2$$
(b) What sampling distribution will you use? What assumptions are you making? NKS The Student's t. We assume that both population distributions are approximately normal with known standard deviations.
The standard normal. We assume that both population distributions are approximately normal with unknown standard deviations.
The standard normal. We assume that both population distributions are approximately normal with known standard deviations.
The Student's t. We assume that both population distributions are approximately normal with unknown standard deviations.
(c) What is the value of the sample test statistic? Compute the corresponding z or t value as appropriate.
(Test the difference $$\mu_1 - \mu_2$$. Round your answer to two decimal places.) NKS (d) Find (or estimate) the P-value. (Round your answer to four decimal places.)
(e) Based on your answers in parts (i)−(iii), will you reject or fail to reject the null hypothesis? Are the data statistically significant at level \alpha?
At the $$\alpha = 0.01$$ level, we fail to reject the null hypothesis and conclude the data are not statistically significant.
At the $$\alpha = 0.01$$ level, we reject the null hypothesis and conclude the data are statistically significant.
At the $$\alpha = 0.01$$ level, we fail to reject the null hypothesis and conclude the data are statistically significant.
At the $$\alpha = 0.01$$ level, we reject the null hypothesis and conclude the data are not statistically significant.
(f) Interpret your conclusion in the context of the application.
Reject the null hypothesis, there is insufficient evidence that there is a difference in mean pollution index for Englewood and Denver.
Reject the null hypothesis, there is sufficient evidence that there is a difference in mean pollution index for Englewood and Denver.
Fail to reject the null hypothesis, there is insufficient evidence that there is a difference in mean pollution index for Englewood and Denver.
Fail to reject the null hypothesis, there is sufficient evidence that there is a difference in mean pollution index for Englewood and Denver. (g) Find a 99% confidence interval for
$$\mu_1 - \mu_2$$.
lower limit
upper limit
(h) Explain the meaning of the confidence interval in the context of the problem.
Because the interval contains only positive numbers, this indicates that at the 99% confidence level, the mean population pollution index for Englewood is greater than that of Denver.
Because the interval contains both positive and negative numbers, this indicates that at the 99% confidence level, we can not say that the mean population pollution index for Englewood is different than that of Denver.
Because the interval contains both positive and negative numbers, this indicates that at the 99% confidence level, the mean population pollution index for Englewood is greater than that of Denver.
Because the interval contains only negative numbers, this indicates that at the 99% confidence level, the mean population pollution index for Englewood is less than that of Denver.
The bulk density of soil is defined as the mass of dry solidsper unit bulk volume. A high bulk density implies a compact soilwith few pores. Bulk density is an important factor in influencing root development, seedling emergence, and aeration. Let X denotethe bulk density of Pima clay loam. Studies show that X is normally distributed with $$\displaystyle\mu={1.5}$$ and $$\displaystyle\sigma={0.2}\frac{{g}}{{c}}{m}^{{3}}$$.
(a) What is thedensity for X? Sketch a graph of the density function. Indicate onthis graph the probability that X lies between 1.1 and 1.9. Findthis probability.
(b) Find the probability that arandomly selected sample of Pima clay loam will have bulk densityless than $$\displaystyle{0.9}\frac{{g}}{{c}}{m}^{{3}}$$.
(c) Would you be surprised if a randomly selected sample of this type of soil has a bulkdensity in excess of $$\displaystyle{2.0}\frac{{g}}{{c}}{m}^{{3}}$$? Explain, based on theprobability of this occurring.
(d) What point has the property that only 10% of the soil samples have bulk density this high orhigher?
(e) What is the moment generating function for X?
1. A researcher is interested in finding a 98% confidence interval for the mean number of times per day that college students text. The study included 144 students who averaged 44.7 texts per day. The standard deviation was 16.5 texts. a. To compute the confidence interval use a ? z t distribution. b. With 98% confidence the population mean number of texts per day is between and texts. c. If many groups of 144 randomly selected members are studied, then a different confidence interval would be produced from each group. About percent of these confidence intervals will contain the true population number of texts per day and about percent will not contain the true population mean number of texts per day. 2. You want to obtain a sample to estimate how much parents spend on their kids birthday parties. Based on previous study, you believe the population standard deviation is approximately $$\displaystyle\sigma={40.4}$$ dollars. You would like to be 90% confident that your estimate is within 1.5 dollar(s) of average spending on the birthday parties. How many parents do you have to sample? n = 3. You want to obtain a sample to estimate a population mean. Based on previous evidence, you believe the population standard deviation is approximately $$\displaystyle\sigma={57.5}$$. You would like to be 95% confident that your estimate is within 0.1 of the true population mean. How large of a sample size is required?
Loretta, who turns eighty this year, has just learned about blood pressure problems in the elderly and is interested in how her blood pressure compares to those of her peers. Specifically, she is interested in her systolic blood pressure, which can be problematic among the elderly. She has uncovered an article in a scientific journal that reports that the mean systolic blood pressure measurement for women over seventy-five is 133.0 mmHg, with a standard deviation of 5.1 mmHg.
Assume that the article reported correct information. Complete the following statements about the distribution of systolic blood pressure measurements for women over seventy-five.
a) According to Chebyshev's theorem, at least $$?36\% 56\% 75\% 84\%\ or\ 89\%$$ of the measurements lie between 122.8 mmHg and 143.2 mmHg.
b) According to Chebyshev's theorem, at least $$8/9 (about\ 89\%)$$ of the measurements lie between mmHg and mmHg. (Round your answer to 1 decimal place.)
In the arrangement shown in Figure P14.40, an object of mass,m = 2.0 kg, hangs from a cordaround a light pulley. The length of the cord between pointP and the pulley is L = 2.0 m.(a) When thevibrator is set to a frequency of 145Hz, a standing wave with six loops is formed. What must be thelinear mass density of the cord in kg/m? (b) How many loops (ifany) will result if m is changed to 2.88 kg?
(c) How many loops (if any) will result if m is changed to72.0 kg?
Two independent measurements are made of the lifetime of a charmed strange meson. Each measurement has a standard deviation of $$7\times 10^{−15}$$ seconds. The lifetime of the meson is estimated by averaging the two measurements.
What is the standard deviation of this estimate ?
1) If A and B are mutually exclusive events with P(A) = 0.3 and P(B) = 0.5, then $$P(A\cap B)=?$$
2) An experiment consists of four outcomes with $$P(E_1)=0.2,P(E_2)=0.3,$$ and $$P(E_3)=0.4$$. The probability of outcome $$E_4$$ is ?
3) If A and B are mutually exclusive events with P(A) = 0.3 and P(B) = 0.5, then $$P(A\cap B) =?$$
4) The empirical rule states that, for data having a bell-shaped distribution, the percentage of data values being within one standard deviation of the mean is approximately
5) If a penny is tossed four times and comes up heads all four times, the probability of heads on the fifth trial is ?
Case: Dr. Jung’s Diamonds Selection
With Christmas coming, Dr. Jung became interested in buying diamonds for his wife. After perusing the Web, he learned about the “4Cs” of diamonds: cut, color, clarity, and carat. He knew his wife wanted round-cut earrings mounted in white gold settings, so he immediately narrowed his focus to evaluating color, clarity, and carat for that style earring.
After a bit of searching, Dr. Jung located a number of earring sets that he would consider purchasing. But he knew the pricing of diamonds varied considerably. To assist in his decision making, Dr. Jung decided to use regression analysis to develop a model to predict the retail price of different sets of round-cut earrings based on their color, clarity, and carat scores. He assembled the data in the file Diamonds.xls for this purpose. Use this data to answer the following questions for Dr. Jung.
1) Prepare scatter plots showing the relationship between the earring prices (Y) and each of the potential independent variables. What sort of relationship does each plot suggest?
2) Let X1, X2, and X3 represent diamond color, clarity, and carats, respectively. If Dr. Jung wanted to build a linear regression model to estimate earring prices using these variables, which variables would you recommend that he use? Why?
3) Suppose Dr. Jung decides to use clarity (X2) and carats (X3) as independent variables in a regression model to predict earring prices. What is the estimated regression equation? What is the value of the R2 and adjusted-R2 statistics?
4) Use the regression equation identified in the previous question to create estimated prices for each of the earring sets in Dr. Jung’s sample. Which sets of earrings appear to be overpriced and which appear to be bargains? Based on this analysis, which set of earrings would you suggest that Dr. Jung purchase?
5) Dr. Jung now remembers that it sometimes helps to perform a square root transformation on the dependent variable in a regression problem. Modify your spreadsheet to include a new dependent variable that is the square root on the earring prices (use Excel’s SQRT( ) function). If Dr. Jung wanted to build a linear regression model to estimate the square root of earring prices using the same independent variables as before, which variables would you recommend that he use? Why?
1
6) Suppose Dr. Jung decides to use clarity (X2) and carats (X3) as independent variables in a regression model to predict the square root of the earring prices. What is the estimated regression equation? What is the value of the R2 and adjusted-R2 statistics?
7) Use the regression equation identified in the previous question to create estimated prices for each of the earring sets in Dr. Jung’s sample. (Remember, your model estimates the square root of the earring prices. So you must actually square the model’s estimates to convert them to price estimates.) Which sets of earring appears to be overpriced and which appear to be bargains? Based on this analysis, which set of earrings would you suggest that Dr. Jung purchase?
8) Dr. Jung now also remembers that it sometimes helps to include interaction terms in a regression model—where you create a new independent variable as the product of two of the original variables. Modify your spreadsheet to include three new independent variables, X4, X5, and X6, representing interaction terms where: X4 = X1 × X2, X5 = X1 × X3, and X6 = X2 × X3. There are now six potential independent variables. If Dr. Jung wanted to build a linear regression model to estimate the square root of earring prices using the same independent variables as before, which variables would you recommend that he use? Why?
9) Suppose Dr. Jung decides to use color (X1), carats (X3) and the interaction terms X4 (color * clarity) and X5 (color * carats) as independent variables in a regression model to predict the square root of the earring prices. What is the estimated regression equation? What is the value of the R2 and adjusted-R2 statistics?
10) Use the regression equation identified in the previous question to create estimated prices for each of the earring sets in Dr. Jung’s sample. (Remember, your model estimates the square root of the earring prices. So you must square the model’s estimates to convert them to actual price estimates.) Which sets of earrings appear to be overpriced and which appear to be bargains? Based on this analysis, which set of earrings would you suggest that Dr. Jung purchase?
The student engineer of a campus radio station wishes to verify the effectivencess of the lightning rod on the antenna mast. The unknown resistance $$\displaystyle{R}_{{x}}$$ is between points C and E. Point E is a "true ground", but is inaccessible for direct measurement because the stratum in which it is located is several meters below Earth's surface. Two identical rods are driven into the ground at A and B, introducing an unknown resistance $$\displaystyle{R}_{{y}}$$. The procedure for finding the unknown resistance $$\displaystyle{R}_{{x}}$$ is as follows. Measure resistance $$\displaystyle{R}_{{1}}$$ between points A and B. Then connect A and B with a heavy conducting wire and measure resistance $$\displaystyle{R}_{{2}}$$ between points A and C.Derive a formula for $$\displaystyle{R}_{{x}}$$ in terms of the observable resistances $$\displaystyle{R}_{{1}}$$ and $$\displaystyle{R}_{{2}}$$. A satisfactory ground resistance would be $$\displaystyle{R}_{{x}}{<}{2.0}$$ Ohms. Is the grounding of the station adequate if measurments give $$\displaystyle{R}_{{1}}={13}{O}{h}{m}{s}$$ and R_2=6.0 Ohms?