I understand the process for how Eigenvalues are involved in Differential Equations. If you have Differential System of Equations like this
The solution to that System of Differential Equations is a Linear Combination of e to the power of the eigenvalues times the corresponding eigenvectors.
However, what I am struggling with figuring out how Generalized Eigenvalues translate to the solutions in Differential Equations. If you take this System of Differential Equations
The solution to this Differential Equations is
But the eigenvectors of this matrix (including the generalized eigenvectors) are
These eigenvectors do share some similarities to the solution to the System of Equations. However, the
term in the solution is one I have no idea how generalized eigenvectors relate. May someone please explain how these eigenvectors translate into Differential Equations?