# With alpha = .05 and df = 8, the critical values for a two-tailed t test are t = +-2.306. Assuming all other factors are held constant, if the df value were increased to df = 20, what would happen to the critical values for t? a. They would increase (move farther from zero). b. They would decrease (move closer to zero). c. They would stay the same. d. Not enough information to answer

Question
Normal distributions
With $$\displaystyle\alpha={.05}$$ and df = 8, the critical values for a two-tailed t test are $$\displaystyle{t}=\pm{2.306}$$. Assuming all other factors are held constant, if the df value were increased to df = 20, what would happen to the critical values for t?
a. They would increase (move farther from zero).
b. They would decrease (move closer to zero).
c. They would stay the same.
d. Not enough information to answer

2021-01-07
Step 1
Density curves of the t distribution are similar in shape to the normal distribution curve. The t distributions have more observations in the tails and less in the center than the normal distributions. As the degree of freedom increases, the t-distribution approaches the standard normal distribution. The standard normal distribution has mean 0. Thus, if all the other factors are held constant, and the df value were increased to 20, the critical values for t would decrease and will get move closer to mean, i.e., will get close to zero.
Step 2
Correct option:
b.They would decrease (move closer to zero).

### Relevant Questions

A random sample of $$n_1 = 14$$ winter days in Denver gave a sample mean pollution index $$x_1 = 43$$.
Previous studies show that $$\sigma_1 = 19$$.
For Englewood (a suburb of Denver), a random sample of $$n_2 = 12$$ winter days gave a sample mean pollution index of $$x_2 = 37$$.
Previous studies show that $$\sigma_2 = 13$$.
Assume the pollution index is normally distributed in both Englewood and Denver.
(a) State the null and alternate hypotheses.
$$H_0:\mu_1=\mu_2.\mu_1>\mu_2$$
$$H_0:\mu_1<\mu_2.\mu_1=\mu_2$$
$$H_0:\mu_1=\mu_2.\mu_1<\mu_2$$
$$H_0:\mu_1=\mu_2.\mu_1\neq\mu_2$$
(b) What sampling distribution will you use? What assumptions are you making? NKS The Student's t. We assume that both population distributions are approximately normal with known standard deviations.
The standard normal. We assume that both population distributions are approximately normal with unknown standard deviations.
The standard normal. We assume that both population distributions are approximately normal with known standard deviations.
The Student's t. We assume that both population distributions are approximately normal with unknown standard deviations.
(c) What is the value of the sample test statistic? Compute the corresponding z or t value as appropriate.
(Test the difference $$\mu_1 - \mu_2$$. Round your answer to two decimal places.) NKS (d) Find (or estimate) the P-value. (Round your answer to four decimal places.)
(e) Based on your answers in parts (i)−(iii), will you reject or fail to reject the null hypothesis? Are the data statistically significant at level \alpha?
At the $$\alpha = 0.01$$ level, we fail to reject the null hypothesis and conclude the data are not statistically significant.
At the $$\alpha = 0.01$$ level, we reject the null hypothesis and conclude the data are statistically significant.
At the $$\alpha = 0.01$$ level, we fail to reject the null hypothesis and conclude the data are statistically significant.
At the $$\alpha = 0.01$$ level, we reject the null hypothesis and conclude the data are not statistically significant.
(f) Interpret your conclusion in the context of the application.
Reject the null hypothesis, there is insufficient evidence that there is a difference in mean pollution index for Englewood and Denver.
Reject the null hypothesis, there is sufficient evidence that there is a difference in mean pollution index for Englewood and Denver.
Fail to reject the null hypothesis, there is insufficient evidence that there is a difference in mean pollution index for Englewood and Denver.
Fail to reject the null hypothesis, there is sufficient evidence that there is a difference in mean pollution index for Englewood and Denver. (g) Find a 99% confidence interval for
$$\mu_1 - \mu_2$$.
lower limit
upper limit
(h) Explain the meaning of the confidence interval in the context of the problem.
Because the interval contains only positive numbers, this indicates that at the 99% confidence level, the mean population pollution index for Englewood is greater than that of Denver.
Because the interval contains both positive and negative numbers, this indicates that at the 99% confidence level, we can not say that the mean population pollution index for Englewood is different than that of Denver.
Because the interval contains both positive and negative numbers, this indicates that at the 99% confidence level, the mean population pollution index for Englewood is greater than that of Denver.
Because the interval contains only negative numbers, this indicates that at the 99% confidence level, the mean population pollution index for Englewood is less than that of Denver.
We will now add support for register-memory ALU operations to the classic five-stage RISC pipeline. To offset this increase in complexity, all memory addressing will be restricted to register indirect (i.e., all addresses are simply a value held in a register; no offset or displacement may be added to the register value). For example, the register-memory instruction add x4, x5, (x1) means add the contents of register x5 to the contents of the memory location with address equal to the value in register x1 and put the sum in register x4. Register-register ALU operations are unchanged. The following items apply to the integer RISC pipeline:
a. List a rearranged order of the five traditional stages of the RISC pipeline that will support register-memory operations implemented exclusively by register indirect addressing.
b. Describe what new forwarding paths are needed for the rearranged pipeline by stating the source, destination, and information transferred on each needed new path.
c. For the reordered stages of the RISC pipeline, what new data hazards are created by this addressing mode? Give an instruction sequence illustrating each new hazard.
d. List all of the ways that the RISC pipeline with register-memory ALU operations can have a different instruction count for a given program than the original RISC pipeline. Give a pair of specific instruction sequences, one for the original pipeline and one for the rearranged pipeline, to illustrate each way.
Hint for (d): Give a pair of instruction sequences where the RISC pipeline has “more” instructions than the reg-mem architecture. Also give a pair of instruction sequences where the RISC pipeline has “fewer” instructions than the reg-mem architecture.
A 2.4-kg object is attached to a horizontal spring of forceconstant k=4.5 kN/m. The spring is stretched 10 cm fromequilibrium and released. Find (a) the frequency of themotion, (b) the period, (c) the amplitude, (d) the maximum speed,and (e) the maximum acceleration. (f) When does the objectfirst reach its equilibrium position? What is itsacceleration at this time?
Two identical blocks placed one on top of the other rest on africtionless horizontal air track. The lower block isattached to a spring of spring constant k= 600 N/m. Whendisplaced slightly from its equilibrium position, the systemoscillates with a frequency of 1.8 Hz. When the amplitude ofoscillation exceeds 5 cm, the upper block starts to slide relativeto the lower one. (a) What are the masses of the twoblocks? (b) What is the coefficient of static frictionbetween the two blocks?
As depicted in the applet, Albertine finds herself in a very odd contraption. She sits in a reclining chair, in front of a large, compressed spring. The spring is compressed 5.00 m from its equilibrium position, and a glass sits 19.8m from her outstretched foot.
a)Assuming that Albertine's mass is 60.0kg , what is $$\displaystyle\mu_{{k}}$$, the coefficient of kinetic friction between the chair and the waxed floor? Use $$\displaystyle{g}={9.80}\frac{{m}}{{s}^{{2}}}$$ for the magnitude of the acceleration due to gravity. Assume that the value of k found in Part A has three significant figures. Note that if you did not assume that k has three significant figures, it would be impossible to get three significant figures for $$\displaystyle\mu_{{k}}$$, since the length scale along the bottom of the applet does not allow you to measure distances to that accuracy with different values of k.
A box is sliding with a speed of 4.50 m/s on a horizontal surface when, at point P, it encounters a rough section. On the rough section, the coefficient of friction is not constant but starts at .100 at P and increases linerly with distance past P, reaching a value of .600 at 12.5 m past point P. (a) Use the work energy theorem to find how far this box slides before stopping. (b) What is the coefficient of friction at the stopping point? (c) How far would the box have slid iff the friciton coefficient didn't increase, but instead had the constant value of .1?
The dominant form of drag experienced by vehicles (bikes, cars,planes, etc.) at operating speeds is called form drag. Itincreases quadratically with velocity (essentially because theamount of air you run into increase with v and so does the amount of force you must exert on each small volume of air). Thus
$$\displaystyle{F}_{{{d}{r}{u}{g}}}={C}_{{d}}{A}{v}^{{2}}$$
where A is the cross-sectional area of the vehicle and $$\displaystyle{C}_{{d}}$$ is called the coefficient of drag.
Part A:
Consider a vehicle moving with constant velocity $$\displaystyle\vec{{{v}}}$$. Find the power dissipated by form drag.
Express your answer in terms of $$\displaystyle{C}_{{d}},{A},$$ and speed v.
Part B:
A certain car has an engine that provides a maximum power $$\displaystyle{P}_{{0}}$$. Suppose that the maximum speed of thee car, $$\displaystyle{v}_{{0}}$$, is limited by a drag force proportional to the square of the speed (as in the previous part). The car engine is now modified, so that the new power $$\displaystyle{P}_{{1}}$$ is 10 percent greater than the original power ($$\displaystyle{P}_{{1}}={110}\%{P}_{{0}}$$).
Assume the following:
The top speed is limited by air drag.
The magnitude of the force of air drag at these speeds is proportional to the square of the speed.
By what percentage, $$\displaystyle{\frac{{{v}_{{1}}-{v}_{{0}}}}{{{v}_{{0}}}}}$$, is the top speed of the car increased?
Express the percent increase in top speed numerically to two significant figures.
The table below shows the number of people for three different race groups who were shot by police that were either armed or unarmed. These values are very close to the exact numbers. They have been changed slightly for each student to get a unique problem.
Suspect was Armed:
Black - 543
White - 1176
Hispanic - 378
Total - 2097
Suspect was unarmed:
Black - 60
White - 67
Hispanic - 38
Total - 165
Total:
Black - 603
White - 1243
Hispanic - 416
Total - 2262
Give your answer as a decimal to at least three decimal places.
a) What percent are Black?
b) What percent are Unarmed?
c) In order for two variables to be Independent of each other, the P $$(A and B) = P(A) \cdot P(B) P(A and B) = P(A) \cdot P(B).$$
This just means that the percentage of times that both things happen equals the individual percentages multiplied together (Only if they are Independent of each other).
Therefore, if a person's race is independent of whether they were killed being unarmed then the percentage of black people that are killed while being unarmed should equal the percentage of blacks times the percentage of Unarmed. Let's check this. Multiply your answer to part a (percentage of blacks) by your answer to part b (percentage of unarmed).
Remember, the previous answer is only correct if the variables are Independent.
d) Now let's get the real percent that are Black and Unarmed by using the table?
If answer c is "significantly different" than answer d, then that means that there could be a different percentage of unarmed people being shot based on race. We will check this out later in the course.
Let's compare the percentage of unarmed shot for each race.
e) What percent are White and Unarmed?
f) What percent are Hispanic and Unarmed?
If you compare answers d, e and f it shows the highest percentage of unarmed people being shot is most likely white.
Why is that?
This is because there are more white people in the United States than any other race and therefore there are likely to be more white people in the table. Since there are more white people in the table, there most likely would be more white and unarmed people shot by police than any other race. This pulls the percentage of white and unarmed up. In addition, there most likely would be more white and armed shot by police. All the percentages for white people would be higher, because there are more white people. For example, the table contains very few Hispanic people, and the percentage of people in the table that were Hispanic and unarmed is the lowest percentage.
Think of it this way. If you went to a college that was 90% female and 10% male, then females would most likely have the highest percentage of A grades. They would also most likely have the highest percentage of B, C, D and F grades
The correct way to compare is "conditional probability". Conditional probability is getting the probability of something happening, given we are dealing with just the people in a particular group.
g) What percent of blacks shot and killed by police were unarmed?
h) What percent of whites shot and killed by police were unarmed?
i) What percent of Hispanics shot and killed by police were unarmed?
You can see by the answers to part g and h, that the percentage of blacks that were unarmed and killed by police is approximately twice that of whites that were unarmed and killed by police.
j) Why do you believe this is happening?
Do a search on the internet for reasons why blacks are more likely to be killed by police. Read a few articles on the topic. Write your response using the articles as references. Give the websites used in your response. Your answer should be several sentences long with at least one website listed. This part of this problem will be graded after the due date.
A 10 kg objectexperiences a horizontal force which causes it to accelerate at 5 $$\displaystyle\frac{{m}}{{s}^{{2}}}$$, moving it a distance of 20 m, horizontally.How much work is done by the force?
A ball is connected to a rope and swung around in uniform circular motion.The tension in the rope is measured at 10 N and the radius of thecircle is 1 m. How much work is done in one revolution around the circle?
A 10 kg weight issuspended in the air by a strong cable. How much work is done, perunit time, in suspending the weight?
A 5 kg block is moved up a 30 degree incline by a force of 50 N, parallel to the incline. The coefficient of kinetic friction between the block and the incline is .25. How much work is done by the 50 N force in moving the block a distance of 10 meters? What is the total workdone on the block over the same distance?
What is the kinetic energy of a 2 kg ball that travels a distance of 50 metersin 5 seconds?
A ball is thrown vertically with a velocity of 25 m/s. How high does it go? What is its velocity when it reaches a height of 25 m?
A ball with enough speed can complete a vertical loop. With what speed must the ballenter the loop to complete a 2 m loop? (Keep in mind that the velocity of the ball is not constant throughout the loop).

A chi-square value of 6.15 is calculated from data in a $$4x5$$ contingency table. Assuming $$\alpha=0.05$$, identify the critical value.
26.217
31.410
21.026
16.919

When a gas is taken from a to c along the curved path in the figure (Figure 1) , the work done by the gas is W = -40 J and the heat added to the gas is Q = -140 J . Along path abc, the work done by the gas is W = -50 J . (That is, 50 J of work is done on the gas.)
I keep on missing Part D. The answer for part D is not -150,150,-155,108,105( was close but it said not quite check calculations)
Part A
What is Q for path abc?
Express your answer to two significant figures and include the appropriate units.
Part B
f Pc=1/2Pb, what is W for path cda?
Express your answer to two significant figures and include the appropriate units.
Part C
What is Q for path cda?
Express your answer to two significant figures and include the appropriate units.
Part D
What is Ua?Uc?
Express your answer to two significant figures and include the appropriate units.
Part E
If Ud?Uc=42J, what is Q for path da?
Express your answer to two significant figures and include the appropriate units.
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