Consider the following research questions/study scenarios. For each study, discuss the most appropriate methods for describing the data (graphically and numerically). What statistical method would be most appropriate for addressing the research questions? Be sure to provide justification of the statistical method. Provide the appropriate regression model and statistical test when appropriate. 1.A study was performed to determine the differences in pain experienced by children with sickle cell disease (SCD) in inpatient and outpatient settings. Pain intensity (visual analog scale) was the primary outcome of interest, but potential confounders include age and physical activity.

Consider the following research questions/study scenarios. For each study, discuss the most appropriate methods for describing the data (graphically and numerically). What statistical method would be most appropriate for addressing the research questions? Be sure to provide justification of the statistical method. Provide the appropriate regression model and statistical test when appropriate. 1.A study was performed to determine the differences in pain experienced by children with sickle cell disease (SCD) in inpatient and outpatient settings. Pain intensity (visual analog scale) was the primary outcome of interest, but potential confounders include age and physical activity.

Question
Describing quantitative data
asked 2021-01-22
Consider the following research questions/study scenarios. For each study, discuss the most appropriate methods for describing the data (graphically and numerically). What statistical method would be most appropriate for addressing the research questions? Be sure to provide justification of the statistical method. Provide the appropriate regression model and statistical test when appropriate.
1.A study was performed to determine the differences in pain experienced by children with sickle cell disease (SCD) in inpatient and outpatient settings. Pain intensity (visual analog scale) was the primary outcome of interest, but potential confounders include age and physical activity.

Answers (1)

2021-01-23
Step 1
Given,
A study was performed to determine the differences in pain experienced by children with sickle cell disease (SCD) in inpatient and outpatient settings. Pain intensity (visual analog scale) was the primary outcome of interest, but potential confounders include age and physical activity.
Step 2
A two sample t-test will be more appropriate.
Here the independent variable is the patient group (in patient or out patient) and hence these two samples are independent.
Since the pain intensity is measured as VAS and hence, it is a quantitative (continuous data) and we assume that the population is Normal with same variance.
Since age and physical activities are potential confounders, we need to take care of these factors and possibly, set the inclusion and exclusion criteria restricting the groups so that the resulting data is free from the confounders.
For describing the data graphically, bar chart is appropriate.
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Relevant Questions

asked 2020-12-24
True or False
1.The goal of descriptive statistics is to simplify, summarize, and organize data.
2.A summary value, usually numerical, that describes a sample is called a parameter.
3.A researcher records the average age for a group of 25 preschool children selected to participate in a research study. The average age is an example of a statistic.
4.The median is the most commonly used measure of central tendency.
5.The mode is the best way to measure central tendency for data from a nominal scale of measurement.
6.A distribution of scores and a mean of 55 and a standard deviation of 4. The variance for this distribution is 16.
7.In a distribution with a mean of M = 36 and a standard deviation of SD = 8, a score of 40 would be considered an extreme value.
8.In a distribution with a mean of M = 76 and a standard deviation of SD = 7, a score of 91 would be considered an extreme value.
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10.The goal of a hypothesis test is to demonstrate that the patterns observed in the sample data represent real patterns in the population and are not simply due to chance or sampling error.
asked 2021-05-09
The dominant form of drag experienced by vehicles (bikes, cars,planes, etc.) at operating speeds is called form drag. Itincreases quadratically with velocity (essentially because theamount of air you run into increase with v and so does the amount of force you must exert on each small volume of air). Thus
\(\displaystyle{F}_{{{d}{r}{u}{g}}}={C}_{{d}}{A}{v}^{{2}}\)
where A is the cross-sectional area of the vehicle and \(\displaystyle{C}_{{d}}\) is called the coefficient of drag.
Part A:
Consider a vehicle moving with constant velocity \(\displaystyle\vec{{{v}}}\). Find the power dissipated by form drag.
Express your answer in terms of \(\displaystyle{C}_{{d}},{A},\) and speed v.
Part B:
A certain car has an engine that provides a maximum power \(\displaystyle{P}_{{0}}\). Suppose that the maximum speed of thee car, \(\displaystyle{v}_{{0}}\), is limited by a drag force proportional to the square of the speed (as in the previous part). The car engine is now modified, so that the new power \(\displaystyle{P}_{{1}}\) is 10 percent greater than the original power (\(\displaystyle{P}_{{1}}={110}\%{P}_{{0}}\)).
Assume the following:
The top speed is limited by air drag.
The magnitude of the force of air drag at these speeds is proportional to the square of the speed.
By what percentage, \(\displaystyle{\frac{{{v}_{{1}}-{v}_{{0}}}}{{{v}_{{0}}}}}\), is the top speed of the car increased?
Express the percent increase in top speed numerically to two significant figures.
asked 2021-05-04

When a gas is taken from a to c along the curved path in the figure (Figure 1) , the work done by the gas is W = -40 J and the heat added to the gas is Q = -140 J . Along path abc, the work done by the gas is W = -50 J . (That is, 50 J of work is done on the gas.)
I keep on missing Part D. The answer for part D is not -150,150,-155,108,105( was close but it said not quite check calculations)
Part A
What is Q for path abc?
Express your answer to two significant figures and include the appropriate units.
Part B
f Pc=1/2Pb, what is W for path cda?
Express your answer to two significant figures and include the appropriate units.
Part C
What is Q for path cda?
Express your answer to two significant figures and include the appropriate units.
Part D
What is Ua?Uc?
Express your answer to two significant figures and include the appropriate units.
Part E
If Ud?Uc=42J, what is Q for path da?
Express your answer to two significant figures and include the appropriate units.
asked 2020-12-25
Case: Dr. Jung’s Diamonds Selection
With Christmas coming, Dr. Jung became interested in buying diamonds for his wife. After perusing the Web, he learned about the “4Cs” of diamonds: cut, color, clarity, and carat. He knew his wife wanted round-cut earrings mounted in white gold settings, so he immediately narrowed his focus to evaluating color, clarity, and carat for that style earring.
After a bit of searching, Dr. Jung located a number of earring sets that he would consider purchasing. But he knew the pricing of diamonds varied considerably. To assist in his decision making, Dr. Jung decided to use regression analysis to develop a model to predict the retail price of different sets of round-cut earrings based on their color, clarity, and carat scores. He assembled the data in the file Diamonds.xls for this purpose. Use this data to answer the following questions for Dr. Jung.
1) Prepare scatter plots showing the relationship between the earring prices (Y) and each of the potential independent variables. What sort of relationship does each plot suggest?
2) Let X1, X2, and X3 represent diamond color, clarity, and carats, respectively. If Dr. Jung wanted to build a linear regression model to estimate earring prices using these variables, which variables would you recommend that he use? Why?
3) Suppose Dr. Jung decides to use clarity (X2) and carats (X3) as independent variables in a regression model to predict earring prices. What is the estimated regression equation? What is the value of the R2 and adjusted-R2 statistics?
4) Use the regression equation identified in the previous question to create estimated prices for each of the earring sets in Dr. Jung’s sample. Which sets of earrings appear to be overpriced and which appear to be bargains? Based on this analysis, which set of earrings would you suggest that Dr. Jung purchase?
5) Dr. Jung now remembers that it sometimes helps to perform a square root transformation on the dependent variable in a regression problem. Modify your spreadsheet to include a new dependent variable that is the square root on the earring prices (use Excel’s SQRT( ) function). If Dr. Jung wanted to build a linear regression model to estimate the square root of earring prices using the same independent variables as before, which variables would you recommend that he use? Why?
1
6) Suppose Dr. Jung decides to use clarity (X2) and carats (X3) as independent variables in a regression model to predict the square root of the earring prices. What is the estimated regression equation? What is the value of the R2 and adjusted-R2 statistics?
7) Use the regression equation identified in the previous question to create estimated prices for each of the earring sets in Dr. Jung’s sample. (Remember, your model estimates the square root of the earring prices. So you must actually square the model’s estimates to convert them to price estimates.) Which sets of earring appears to be overpriced and which appear to be bargains? Based on this analysis, which set of earrings would you suggest that Dr. Jung purchase?
8) Dr. Jung now also remembers that it sometimes helps to include interaction terms in a regression model—where you create a new independent variable as the product of two of the original variables. Modify your spreadsheet to include three new independent variables, X4, X5, and X6, representing interaction terms where: X4 = X1 × X2, X5 = X1 × X3, and X6 = X2 × X3. There are now six potential independent variables. If Dr. Jung wanted to build a linear regression model to estimate the square root of earring prices using the same independent variables as before, which variables would you recommend that he use? Why?
9) Suppose Dr. Jung decides to use color (X1), carats (X3) and the interaction terms X4 (color * clarity) and X5 (color * carats) as independent variables in a regression model to predict the square root of the earring prices. What is the estimated regression equation? What is the value of the R2 and adjusted-R2 statistics?
10) Use the regression equation identified in the previous question to create estimated prices for each of the earring sets in Dr. Jung’s sample. (Remember, your model estimates the square root of the earring prices. So you must square the model’s estimates to convert them to actual price estimates.) Which sets of earrings appear to be overpriced and which appear to be bargains? Based on this analysis, which set of earrings would you suggest that Dr. Jung purchase?
asked 2020-11-01
Identify the appropriate hypothesis test for each of the following research situations using the options: The null hypothesis, The Test Statistics, The Sample Statistic, The Standard Error, and The Alpha Level.
A researcher conducts a cross-sectional developmental study to determine whether there is a significant difference in vocabulary skills between 8-year-old and 10-year-old children. A researcher determines that 8% of the males enrolled in Introductory Psychology have some form of color blindness, compared to only 2% of the females. Is there a significant relationship between color blindness and gender?
A researcher records the daily sugar consumption and the activity level for each of 20 children enrolled in a summer camp program. The researcher would like to determine whether there is a significant relationship between sugar consumption and activity level.
A researcher would like to determine whether a 4-week therapy program produces significant changes in behavior. A group of 25 participants is measured before therapy, at the end of therapy, and again 3 months after therapy.
A researcher would like to determine whether a new program for teaching mathematics is significantly better than the old program. It is suspected that the new program will be very effective for small-group instruction but probably will not work well with large classes. The research study involves comparing four groups of students: a small class taught by the new method, a large class taught by the new method, a small class taught by the old method, and a large class taught by the old method.
asked 2021-02-25
We will now add support for register-memory ALU operations to the classic five-stage RISC pipeline. To offset this increase in complexity, all memory addressing will be restricted to register indirect (i.e., all addresses are simply a value held in a register; no offset or displacement may be added to the register value). For example, the register-memory instruction add x4, x5, (x1) means add the contents of register x5 to the contents of the memory location with address equal to the value in register x1 and put the sum in register x4. Register-register ALU operations are unchanged. The following items apply to the integer RISC pipeline:
a. List a rearranged order of the five traditional stages of the RISC pipeline that will support register-memory operations implemented exclusively by register indirect addressing.
b. Describe what new forwarding paths are needed for the rearranged pipeline by stating the source, destination, and information transferred on each needed new path.
c. For the reordered stages of the RISC pipeline, what new data hazards are created by this addressing mode? Give an instruction sequence illustrating each new hazard.
d. List all of the ways that the RISC pipeline with register-memory ALU operations can have a different instruction count for a given program than the original RISC pipeline. Give a pair of specific instruction sequences, one for the original pipeline and one for the rearranged pipeline, to illustrate each way.
Hint for (d): Give a pair of instruction sequences where the RISC pipeline has “more” instructions than the reg-mem architecture. Also give a pair of instruction sequences where the RISC pipeline has “fewer” instructions than the reg-mem architecture.
asked 2021-04-16
Find all solutions of the following linear congruences. Inverses (when required) may not be determined "by inspection", but rather must be calculated using the appropriate method with all work shown.
\(\displaystyle{14}{x}\equiv{6}{\left({b}\text{mod}{31}\right)}\)
asked 2021-02-25
Give a full and correct answer Why is it important that a sample be random and representative when conducting hypothesis testing? Representative Sample vs. Random Sample: An Overview Economists and researchers seek to reduce sampling bias to near negligible levels when employing statistical analysis. Three basic characteristics in a sample reduce the chances of sampling bias and allow economists to make more confident inferences about a general population from the results obtained from the sample analysis or study: * Such samples must be representative of the chosen population studied. * They must be randomly chosen, meaning that each member of the larger population has an equal chance of being chosen. * They must be large enough so as not to skew the results. The optimal size of the sample group depends on the precise degree of confidence required for making an inference. Representative sampling and random sampling are two techniques used to help ensure data is free of bias. These sampling techniques are not mutually exclusive and, in fact, they are often used in tandem to reduce the degree of sampling error in an analysis and allow for greater confidence in making statistical inferences from the sample in regard to the larger group. Representative Sample A representative sample is a group or set chosen from a larger statistical population or group of factors or instances that adequately replicates the larger group according to whatever characteristic or quality is under study. A representative sample parallels key variables and characteristics of the large society under examination. Some examples include sex, age, education level, socioeconomic status (SES), or marital status. A larger sample size reduced sampling error and increases the likelihood that the sample accurately reflects the target population. Random Sample A random sample is a group or set chosen from a larger population or group of factors of instances in a random manner that allows for each member of the larger group to have an equal chance of being chosen. A random sample is meant to be an unbiased representation of the larger population. It is considered a fair way to select a sample from a larger population since every member of the population has an equal chance of getting selected. Special Considerations: People collecting samples need to ensure that bias is minimized. Representative sampling is one of the key methods of achieving this because such samples replicate as closely as possible elements of the larger population under study. This alone, however, is not enough to make the sampling bias negligible. Combining the random sampling technique with the representative sampling method reduces bias further because no specific member of the representative population has a greater chance of selection into the sample than any other. Summarize this article in 250 words.
asked 2021-05-18
Lightning produces a maximum air temperature on the order of \(\displaystyle{9.3}\times{10}^{{{3}}}{K}\), whereas a nuclear explosion produces a temperature on the order of \(\displaystyle{9.2}\times{10}^{{{6}}}{K}\). Use Wien's displacement law to calculate the wavelength of the thermally-produced photons radiated with greatest intensity by each of these sources. Select the part of the electromagnetic spectrum where you would expect each to radiate most strongly.
(a) lightning
\(\displaystyle\lambda_{{\max}}\approx{n}{m}\)
b) nuclear explosion
\(\displaystyle\lambda_{{\max}}\approx\pm\)
asked 2020-11-23

The accompanying two-way table was constructed using data in the article “Television Viewing and Physical Fitness in Adults” (Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 1990: 315–320). The author hoped to determine whether time spent watching television is associated with cardiovascular fitness. Subjects were asked about their television-viewing habits and were classified as physically fit if they scored in the excellent or very good category on a step test. We include MINITAB output from a chi-squared analysis. The four TV groups corresponded to different amounts of time per day spent watching TV (0, 1–2, 3–4, or 5 or more hours). The 168 individuals represented in the first column were those judged physically fit. Expected counts appear below observed counts, and MINITAB displays the contribution to \(\displaystyle{x}^{{{2}}}\) from each cell.
State and test the appropriate hypotheses using \(\displaystyle\alpha={0.05}\)
\(\begin{array}{|c|c|}\hline & 1 & 2 & Total \\ \hline 1 & 35 & 147 & 182 \\ \hline & 25.48 & 156.52 & \\ \hline 2 & 101 & 629 & 730 \\ \hline & 102.20 & 627.80 & \\ \hline 3 & 28 & 222 & 250 \\ \hline & 35.00 & 215.00 & \\ \hline 4 & 4 & 34 & 38 \\ \hline & 5.32 & 32.68 & \\ \hline Total & 168 & 1032 & 1200 \\ \hline \end{array}\)
\(Chisq= 3.557\ +\ 0.579\ +\ 0.014\ +\ 0.002\ +\ 1.400\ +\ 0.228\ +\ 0.328\ +\ 0.053=6.161\)
\(\displaystyle{d}{f}={3}\)

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