For this study, why we would want to use Chi-Squared? 1.A study investigating the effects of second-hand smoke in working environments asked the following question: “How often do you experience second-hand smoke in a work environment/function? Never, Occasionally, Fairly Often, Very Often, Almost Always.” The question was asked of managers and employees to determine whether there was an association between position and the amount of second-hand smoke exposure.

Question
Chi-square tests
asked 2020-12-29
For this study, why we would want to use Chi-Squared?
1.A study investigating the effects of second-hand smoke in working environments asked the following question: “How often do you experience second-hand smoke in a work environment/function? Never, Occasionally, Fairly Often, Very Often, Almost Always.” The question was asked of managers and employees to determine whether there was an association between position and the amount of second-hand smoke exposure.

Answers (1)

2020-12-30
Step 1
The chi-square test is generally used for testing relationship between categorical data.
For the described problem we have two categorical variables as, how often do you experience the second-hand smoke work environment (Never, Occasionally, Fairly Often, Very Often, Almost Always) and the position.
Step 2
Thus, to check the association between position and the amount of second-hand smoke exposure chi-squared test is best.
The best way to summarize the data is using the contingency table using appropriate number of rows and columns.
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Relevant Questions

asked 2021-01-31
factor in determining the usefulness of an examination as a measure of demonstrated ability is the amount of spread that occurs in the grades. If the spread or variation of examination scores is very small, it usually means that the examination was either too hard or too easy. However, if the variance of scores is moderately large, then there is a definite difference in scores between "better," "average," and "poorer" students. A group of attorneys in a Midwest state has been given the task of making up this year's bar examination for the state. The examination has 500 total possible points, and from the history of past examinations, it is known that a standard deviation of around 60 points is desirable. Of course, too large or too small a standard deviation is not good. The attorneys want to test their examination to see how good it is. A preliminary version of the examination (with slight modifications to protect the integrity of the real examination) is given to a random sample of 20 newly graduated law students. Their scores give a sample standard deviation of 70 points. Using a 0.01 level of significance, test the claim that the population standard deviation for the new examination is 60 against the claim that the population standard deviation is different from 60.
(a) What is the level of significance?
State the null and alternate hypotheses.
\(H_{0}:\sigma=60,\ H_{1}:\sigma\ <\ 60H_{0}:\sigma\ >\ 60,\ H_{1}:\sigma=60H_{0}:\sigma=60,\ H_{1}:\sigma\ >\ 60H_{0}:\sigma=60,\ H_{1}:\sigma\ \neq\ 60\)
(b) Find the value of the chi-square statistic for the sample. (Round your answer to two decimal places.)
What are the degrees of freedom?
What assumptions are you making about the original distribution?
We assume a binomial population distribution.We assume a exponential population distribution. We assume a normal population distribution.We assume a uniform population distribution.
asked 2020-10-20
A) Explain why the chi-square goodness-of-fit test is not an appropriate way to find out.
B) What might you do instead of weighing the nuts in order to use a x2 test?
Nuts A company says its premium mixture of nuts con- tains 10% Brazil nuts, 20% cashews, 20% almonds, and 10% hazelnuts, and the rest are peanuts. You buy a large can and separate the various kinds of nuts. Upon weigh- ing them, you find there are 112 grams of Brazil nuts, 183 grams of cashews, 207 grams of almonds, 71 grams of hazelnuts, and 446 grams of peanuts. You wonder whether your mix is significantly different from what the company advertises.
asked 2020-12-09
You want to know whether people in different regions of the country are equally likely to vote Sarah Duterte, Peter Cayetano, Mar Roxas, or any candidate other than the three in the next election. You would use
A. chi-square test of independence.
B. either chi-square test (goodness-of-fit or test of independence), depending on how you set up the problem.
C. chi-square goodness-of-fit test.
D. both chi-square tests, in order to check the results of one with the other.
asked 2020-12-30
Is the gift you purchased for that special someone really appreciated? This was the question investigated in the Journal of Experimental Social Psychology (Vol. 45, 2009). Toe researchers examined the link between engagement ring price (dollars) and level of appreciation of the recipient \(\displaystyle{\left(\text{measured on a 7-point scale where}\ {1}=\ \text{"not at all" and}\ {7}=\ \text{to a great extent"}\right)}.\) Participants for the study were those who used a popular Web site for engaged couples. The Web site's directory was searched for those with "average" American names (e.g., "John Smith," "Sara Jones"). These individuals were then invited to participate in an online survey in exchange for a $10 gift certificate. Of the respondents, those who paid really high or really low prices for the ring were excluded, leaving a sample size of 33 respondents. a) Identify the experimental units for this study. b) What are the variables of interest? Are they quantitative or qualitative in nature? c) Describe the population of interest. d) Do you believe the sample of 33 respondents is representative of the population? Explain. e. In a second, designed study, the researchers investigated whether the link between gift price and level of appreciation was stronger for birthday gift givers than for birthday gift receivers. Toe participants were randomly assigned to play the role of gift-giver or gift-receiver. Assume that the sample consists of 50 individuals. Use a random number generator to randomly assign 25 individuals to play the gift-receiver role and 25 to play the gift-giver role.
asked 2021-03-05
For each of the following situations, state whether you’d use a chi-square goodness-of-fit test, a chi-square test of homogeneity, a chi-square test of independence, or some other statistical test:
a) Is the quality of a car affected by what day it was built? A car manufacturer examines a random sample of the warranty claims filed over the past two years to test whether defects are randomly distributed across days of the work week.
b) A medical researcher wants to know if blood cholesterol level is related to heart disease. She examines a database of 10,000 patients, testing whether the cholesterol level (in milligrams) is related to whether or not a person has heart disease.
c) A student wants to find out whether political leaning (liberal, moderate, or conservative) is related to choice of major. He surveys 500 randomly chosen students and performs a test.
asked 2020-10-23
The table below shows the number of people for three different race groups who were shot by police that were either armed or unarmed. These values are very close to the exact numbers. They have been changed slightly for each student to get a unique problem.
Suspect was Armed:
Black - 543
White - 1176
Hispanic - 378
Total - 2097
Suspect was unarmed:
Black - 60
White - 67
Hispanic - 38
Total - 165
Total:
Black - 603
White - 1243
Hispanic - 416
Total - 2262
Give your answer as a decimal to at least three decimal places.
a) What percent are Black?
b) What percent are Unarmed?
c) In order for two variables to be Independent of each other, the P \((A and B) = P(A) \cdot P(B) P(A and B) = P(A) \cdot P(B).\)
This just means that the percentage of times that both things happen equals the individual percentages multiplied together (Only if they are Independent of each other).
Therefore, if a person's race is independent of whether they were killed being unarmed then the percentage of black people that are killed while being unarmed should equal the percentage of blacks times the percentage of Unarmed. Let's check this. Multiply your answer to part a (percentage of blacks) by your answer to part b (percentage of unarmed).
Remember, the previous answer is only correct if the variables are Independent.
d) Now let's get the real percent that are Black and Unarmed by using the table?
If answer c is "significantly different" than answer d, then that means that there could be a different percentage of unarmed people being shot based on race. We will check this out later in the course.
Let's compare the percentage of unarmed shot for each race.
e) What percent are White and Unarmed?
f) What percent are Hispanic and Unarmed?
If you compare answers d, e and f it shows the highest percentage of unarmed people being shot is most likely white.
Why is that?
This is because there are more white people in the United States than any other race and therefore there are likely to be more white people in the table. Since there are more white people in the table, there most likely would be more white and unarmed people shot by police than any other race. This pulls the percentage of white and unarmed up. In addition, there most likely would be more white and armed shot by police. All the percentages for white people would be higher, because there are more white people. For example, the table contains very few Hispanic people, and the percentage of people in the table that were Hispanic and unarmed is the lowest percentage.
Think of it this way. If you went to a college that was 90% female and 10% male, then females would most likely have the highest percentage of A grades. They would also most likely have the highest percentage of B, C, D and F grades
The correct way to compare is "conditional probability". Conditional probability is getting the probability of something happening, given we are dealing with just the people in a particular group.
g) What percent of blacks shot and killed by police were unarmed?
h) What percent of whites shot and killed by police were unarmed?
i) What percent of Hispanics shot and killed by police were unarmed?
You can see by the answers to part g and h, that the percentage of blacks that were unarmed and killed by police is approximately twice that of whites that were unarmed and killed by police.
j) Why do you believe this is happening?
Do a search on the internet for reasons why blacks are more likely to be killed by police. Read a few articles on the topic. Write your response using the articles as references. Give the websites used in your response. Your answer should be several sentences long with at least one website listed. This part of this problem will be graded after the due date.
asked 2020-11-23
The accompanying two-way table was constructed using data in the article “Television Viewing and Physical Fitness in Adults” (Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 1990: 315–320). The author hoped to determine whether time spent watching television is associated with cardiovascular fitness. Subjects were asked about their television-viewing habits and were classified as physically fit if they scored in the excellent or very good category on a step test. We include MINITAB output from a chi-squared analysis. The four TV groups corresponded to different amounts of time per day spent watching TV (0, 1–2, 3–4, or 5 or more hours). The 168 individuals represented in the first column were those judged physically fit. Expected counts appear below observed counts, and MINITAB displays the contribution to \(\displaystyle{x}^{{{2}}}\) from each cell.
State and test the appropriate hypotheses using \(\displaystyle\alpha={0.05}\)
\(\displaystyle{b}{e}{g}\in{\left\lbrace{a}{r}{r}{a}{y}\right\rbrace}{\left\lbrace{\left|{c}\right|}{c}{\mid}\right\rbrace}{h}{l}\in{e}&{a}\mp,\ {1}&{a}\mp,\ {2}&{a}\mp,\ {T}{o}{t}{a}{l}\backslash{h}{l}\in{e}{1}&{a}\mp,\ {35}&{a}\mp,\ {147}&{a}\mp,\ {182}\backslash{h}{l}\in{e}&{a}\mp,\ {25.48}&{a}\mp,\ {156.52}&{a}\mp,\backslash{h}{l}\in{e}{2}&{a}\mp,\ {101}&{a}\mp,\ {629}&{a}\mp,\ {730}\backslash{h}{l}\in{e}&{a}\mp,\ {102.20}&{a}\mp,\ {627.80}&{a}\mp,\backslash{h}{l}\in{e}{3}&{a}\mp,\ {28}&{a}\mp,\ {222}&{a}\mp,\ {250}\backslash{h}{l}\in{e}&{a}\mp,\ {35.00}&{a}\mp,\ {215.00}&{a}\mp,\backslash{h}{l}\in{e}{4}&{a}\mp,\ {4}&{a}\mp,\ {34}&{a}\mp,\ {38}\backslash{h}{l}\in{e}&{a}\mp,\ {5.32}&{a}\mp,\ {32.68}&{a}\mp,\backslash{h}{l}\in{e}{T}{o}{t}{a}{l}&{a}\mp,\ {168}&{a}\mp,\ {1032}&{a}\mp,\ {1200}\backslash{h}{l}\in{e}\)
\(\displaystyle{C}{h}{i}{s}{q}={a}\mp,\ {3.557}\ +\ {0.579}\ +\ {a}\mp,\ {0.014}\ +\ {0.002}\ +\ {a}\mp,\ {1.400}\ +\ {0.228}\ +\ {a}\mp,\ {0.328}\ +\ {0.053}={6.161}\)
\(\displaystyle{d}{f}={3}\)
asked 2021-02-12
For the following situations, identify the test you would run to analyze the data:
A marketing firm producing costumes is interested in studying consumer behavior in the context of purchase decision of costumes in a specific market. This company is a major player in the costume market that is characterized by intense competition. The company would like to know in particular whether the income level of the consumers (measured as lower, middle, upper middle, and upper class) influences their choice of costume type. They are specifically focused on four types of costumes (funny costumes, scary costumes, clever costumes, and boring costumes).
a. Chi-Square Goodness of Fit
b. Frequencies
c. Descriptive Statistics
d. Chi-Square of Independence
asked 2020-12-25
Case: Dr. Jung’s Diamonds Selection
With Christmas coming, Dr. Jung became interested in buying diamonds for his wife. After perusing the Web, he learned about the “4Cs” of diamonds: cut, color, clarity, and carat. He knew his wife wanted round-cut earrings mounted in white gold settings, so he immediately narrowed his focus to evaluating color, clarity, and carat for that style earring.
After a bit of searching, Dr. Jung located a number of earring sets that he would consider purchasing. But he knew the pricing of diamonds varied considerably. To assist in his decision making, Dr. Jung decided to use regression analysis to develop a model to predict the retail price of different sets of round-cut earrings based on their color, clarity, and carat scores. He assembled the data in the file Diamonds.xls for this purpose. Use this data to answer the following questions for Dr. Jung.
1) Prepare scatter plots showing the relationship between the earring prices (Y) and each of the potential independent variables. What sort of relationship does each plot suggest?
2) Let X1, X2, and X3 represent diamond color, clarity, and carats, respectively. If Dr. Jung wanted to build a linear regression model to estimate earring prices using these variables, which variables would you recommend that he use? Why?
3) Suppose Dr. Jung decides to use clarity (X2) and carats (X3) as independent variables in a regression model to predict earring prices. What is the estimated regression equation? What is the value of the R2 and adjusted-R2 statistics?
4) Use the regression equation identified in the previous question to create estimated prices for each of the earring sets in Dr. Jung’s sample. Which sets of earrings appear to be overpriced and which appear to be bargains? Based on this analysis, which set of earrings would you suggest that Dr. Jung purchase?
5) Dr. Jung now remembers that it sometimes helps to perform a square root transformation on the dependent variable in a regression problem. Modify your spreadsheet to include a new dependent variable that is the square root on the earring prices (use Excel’s SQRT( ) function). If Dr. Jung wanted to build a linear regression model to estimate the square root of earring prices using the same independent variables as before, which variables would you recommend that he use? Why?
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6) Suppose Dr. Jung decides to use clarity (X2) and carats (X3) as independent variables in a regression model to predict the square root of the earring prices. What is the estimated regression equation? What is the value of the R2 and adjusted-R2 statistics?
7) Use the regression equation identified in the previous question to create estimated prices for each of the earring sets in Dr. Jung’s sample. (Remember, your model estimates the square root of the earring prices. So you must actually square the model’s estimates to convert them to price estimates.) Which sets of earring appears to be overpriced and which appear to be bargains? Based on this analysis, which set of earrings would you suggest that Dr. Jung purchase?
8) Dr. Jung now also remembers that it sometimes helps to include interaction terms in a regression model—where you create a new independent variable as the product of two of the original variables. Modify your spreadsheet to include three new independent variables, X4, X5, and X6, representing interaction terms where: X4 = X1 × X2, X5 = X1 × X3, and X6 = X2 × X3. There are now six potential independent variables. If Dr. Jung wanted to build a linear regression model to estimate the square root of earring prices using the same independent variables as before, which variables would you recommend that he use? Why?
9) Suppose Dr. Jung decides to use color (X1), carats (X3) and the interaction terms X4 (color * clarity) and X5 (color * carats) as independent variables in a regression model to predict the square root of the earring prices. What is the estimated regression equation? What is the value of the R2 and adjusted-R2 statistics?
10) Use the regression equation identified in the previous question to create estimated prices for each of the earring sets in Dr. Jung’s sample. (Remember, your model estimates the square root of the earring prices. So you must square the model’s estimates to convert them to actual price estimates.) Which sets of earrings appear to be overpriced and which appear to be bargains? Based on this analysis, which set of earrings would you suggest that Dr. Jung purchase?
asked 2020-12-25
Explain what changes would be required so that you could analyze the hypothesis using a chi-square test. For instance, rather than looking at test scores as a range from 0 to 100, you could change the variable to low, medium, or high. What advantages and disadvantages do you see in using this approach? Which is the better option for this hypothesis, the parametric approach or nonparametric approach?
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