The option (c), “population based upon information contained in the population” is incorrect because statistical inference helps to draw conclusions about some unknown parameter based on sample data.

The option (d), “mean of the sample based upon the mean of the population” is incorrect because statistical inference draws some conclusions about some unknown parameter of population based on sample and not based on mean of population.

Statistical inference draws some conclusions or estimate the unknown parameter based on sample drawn from population. That is, the conclusion about population is made based on the sample data. Hence, option (b), “population based upon information contained in the sample” is the correct answer in the provided scenario.