A piece of sodium metal reacts completely with water as follows:

Tara Alvarado 2021-12-19 Answered
A piece of sodium metal reacts completely with water as follows:
2Na(s)+2H2O(l)2NaOH(aq)+H2(g)
The hydrogen gas generated is collected over water at 25.0 degree C. The volume of the gas is 246 mL measured at 1.00 atm. Calculate the number of grams of sodium used in the reaction. (Vapor pressure of water at 25 degree C=0.0313 atm.)
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Expert Answer

Daniel Cormack
Answered 2021-12-20 Author has 34 answers

Step 1
Given information:
The equation for the reaction is
2Na(s)+2H2O(l)2NaOH(aq)+H2(g)
T=25.0C=(273+25)K=298K;
V=246mL=0.246L is the volume of the gas (H2);
P1.00atm is the total pressure over the water;
- R=0.0821LatmKmol is the ideal gas constant;
- PH2O=0.0313atm at 25.0C is the vapor pressure of water.
Let's calculate the number of grams of sodium used in the reaction.
Step 2
The total pressure of the mixture is the summary of partial pressures of each component.
P{2}+PH2O=PTotal
First, let's find the partial pressure of the H2:
P{2}=PTotalPH2O
PH2=1.00atm0.0313atm
PH2=0.9687atm
Now let's calculate the number of moles of H2. We can use the ideal gas equation.
PV=nRT
n=PVRT
n=0.9687atm0.246L0.0821L atmK mol298K
n=9.740103mol
The number of moles of H2 is9.740103mol.
Step 3
From the balanced equation for the chemical reaction above, we can conclude that 2mol of Na produces 1mol of H2.
Therefore, number of moles of Na which produce H2 is 9.740103mol is:
nNa=2molNa1molH29.740103molH2
nNa=0.01948molNa
Now we can find the mass of sodium in g used in this reaction.
nNa=mNaMNa
Therefore, mNa=nNaM

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twineg4
Answered 2021-12-21 Author has 33 answers
Explanation:
1. Gather all the information in one place
Mr:22.99
2Na+2H2O2NaOH+H2
Pt=1.00atm
pH2O=0.0313atm
T=25.0C
V=246mL
2. Moles of H2
To find the moles of hydrogen, we can use the Ideal Gas Law:
pV=nRT
(a) Calculate the partial pressure of the hydrogen
pt=pH2+pH2O
1.00atm=pH2+0.0313atm
pH2=0.9687atm
(b) Convert the volume to litres
V=246mL=0.246L
(c) Convert the temperature to kelvins
T=(25.0+273.15)K=298.15K
(d) Calculate the moles of hydrogen
0.9687atm×0.246L=n×0.08206LatmK1mol1×298.15K
0.2383=24.47nmol1
n=0.238324.47mol1
=0.009740mol
3. Moles of Na
The molar ratio is 2 mol Na: 1 mol H2
Moles of Na=0.009 740molH2×2molNa1molH2=0.01948molNa
4, Mass of Na
Mass of Na=0.019 48molNa×22.99gNa1molNa=0.449gNa
The mass of Na used was 0.449g.

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