Are the bonds in each of the following substances ionic, nonpolar covalent, or p

Lloyd Allen 2021-11-24 Answered
Are the bonds in each of the following substances ionic, nonpolar covalent, or polar covalent? Arrange the substances with polar covalent bonds in order of increasing bond polarity:
(a) KCl,
(b) \(\displaystyle{P}_{{{4}}}\),
(c) \(\displaystyle{B}{F}_{{{3}}}\),
(d) \(\displaystyle{S}{O}_{{{2}}}\),
(e) \(\displaystyle{B}{r}_{{{2}}}\),
(f) \(\displaystyle{N}{O}_{{{2}}}\)

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Expert Answer

Abel Maynard
Answered 2021-11-25 Author has 8243 answers

Step 1
a) K Cl: Ionic
b) \(\displaystyle{P}_{{{4}}}\) : Nonpolar covalent
c) \(\displaystyle{B}{F}_{{{3}}}\) : Polar covalent
d) \(\displaystyle{S}{O}_{{{2}}}\) : Polar covalent
e) \(\displaystyle{B}{r}_{{{2}}}\) : Nonpolar covalent
f) \(\displaystyle{N}{O}_{{{2}}}\) : Polar covalent
\(\displaystyle{N}{O}_{{{2}}}{<}{S}{O}_{{{2}}}{<}{B}{F}_{{{3}}}\)

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Alicia Washington
Answered 2021-11-26 Author has 9063 answers

Step 1
(a) Ionic
(b) Nonpolar covalent
(c) Polar covalent
(d) Polar covalent
(e) Nonpolar covalent
(f) Polar covalent
Step 2
Are the bonds in each of the following substances ionic, nonpolar covalent, or polar covalent?
The nature of a bond depends on the modulus of the difference of electronegativity \(\displaystyle{\left({\left|\Delta{E}{N}\right|}\right)}\) between the atoms that form it.
1) If \(\displaystyle{\left|\Delta{E}{N}\right|}={0}\), the bond nonpolar covalent
2) If \(\displaystyle{0}{<}{\left|\Delta{E}{N}\right|}\le{2}\), the bond is polar covalent.
3) If \(\displaystyle{\left|\Delta{E}{N}\right|}{>}{2}\), the bond is ionic.
Step 3
a) K Cl \(\displaystyle={\left|\Delta{E}{N}\right|}={\left|{E}{N}{\left({K}\right)}-{E}{N}{\left({C}{l}\right)}\right|}={\left|{0.8}-{3.0}\right|}={2.2}\) The bond is ionic.
b) \(\displaystyle{P}_{{{4}}}={\left|\Delta{E}{N}\right|}={\left|{E}{N}{\left({P}\right)}-{E}{N}{\left({P}\right)}\right|}={\left|{2.1}-{2.1}\right|}={0.0}\) The bond is nonpolar covalent.
c) \(\displaystyle{B}{F}_{{{3}}}={\left|\Delta{E}{N}\right|}={\left|{E}{N}{\left({B}\right)}-{E}{N}{\left({F}\right)}\right|}={\left|{2.0}-{4.0}\right|}={2.0}\) The bond is polar covalent.
d) \(\displaystyle{S}{O}_{{{2}}}={\left|\Delta{E}{N}\right|}={\left|{E}{N}{\left({S}\right)}-{E}{N}{\left({O}\right)}\right|}={\left|{2.5}-{3.5}\right|}={1.0}\) The bond is polar covalent.
e) \(\displaystyle{B}{r}_{{{2}}}={\left|\Delta{E}{N}\right|}={\left|{E}{N}{\left({B}{r}\right)}-{E}{N}{\left({B}{r}\right)}\right|}={\left|{2.8}-{2.8}\right|}={0.0}\) The bond is nonpolar covalent.
f) \(\displaystyle{N}{O}_{{{2}}}={\left|\Delta{E}{N}\right|}={\left|{E}{N}{\left({N}\right)}-{E}{N}{\left({O}\right)}\right|}={\left|{3.0}-{3.5}\right|}={0.5}\) The bond is polar covalent.

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