# The Great White Shark. In an article titled “Great White, Deep Trouble” (Nationa

The Great White Shark. In an article titled “Great White, Deep Trouble” (National Geographic, Vol. 197(4), pp. 2–29), Peter Benchley—the author of JAWS—discussed various aspects of the Great White Shark (Carcharodon carcharias). Data on the number of pups borne in a lifetime by each of 80 Great White Shark females are provided on the WeissStats site. Use the technology of your choice to
a. obtain frequency and relative-frequency distributions, using single-value grouping.
b. construct and interpret either a frequency histogram or a relativefrequency histogram.

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Florence Pittman
Step 1
(a)
The data represents the number of pups borne in a lifetime by case of 80 great white shark females which is provided from the Weiss State site.
Single value grouping:
A grouping method in which each class is used to represents a single possible value. The classes are termed as single value classes, and this grouping method is referred to be single value grouping.
The most appropriate place for use this single value grouping method is that the data to be in discrete nature with relatively few distinct observations.
Frequency:
The frequencies are calculated by using the tally mark and the method of single value grouping is used because, range of the data is from 3 to 12. Here the number of times each class levels repeats is the frequency of that particular class.
Relative frequency:
The general formula for the relative frequency is,
Relative Frequency=$$\displaystyle{\frac{{{F}{r}{e}{q}{u}{e}{n}{s}{y}}}{{{T}{o}{t}{a}{l}{\mathfrak{{e}}}{q}{u}{e}{n}{s}{y}}}}$$
In general, the Proportion is calculated by the product of relative frequency of each class with 100.
From the Minitab output, the relative frequency is expressed in terms of percent with the pups type of female shark is obtained.
Software procedure:
Step by step procedure to obtain the frequency distribution for marital status and drinking status using MINITAB software.
Choose Stat > Tables>Tally>Individual variables.
Enterthe columns of pupsin variable box.
Select the check box of count and percent under display.
ClickOK.
Output using MINITAB software is given below:
Tally for Discrete Variables: PUPS
$\begin{array}{cc} &Tally Paps Cont Percent& \\ \hline 3 & 2 & 2.5 \\ 4 & 5 & 6.25 \\ 5 & 10 & 12.5 \\ 6 & 11 & 13.75 \\7 & 17 & 21.25 \\ 8 & 17 & 21.25 \\ 9 & 11 & 13.75 \\ 10 & 4 & 5 \\ 11 & 2 & 2.5 \\12 & 1 & 1.25 \\N= & 80 & \end{array}$
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(b)
Software procedure:
Step by step procedure to draw the histogram chart by using MINITAB software.
Choose Graph > Histogram.
Choose Simple, and then click OK.
InGraph variables, enter the corresponding column of pups.
Inscale on y-axis, make click on frequency.
Click on ok.
Output using MINITAB software is given below:

Interpretation:
From the output of frequency histogram, it is observed that the range of the pups is from 1 to 12 and the most of the number of pups representatives per female is occurred more frequently from 7 to 8 respectively.