(square roots of the identity matrix) For how many 2x2 matrices A is it true that A^2=I ? Now answer the same question for n x n matrices where n>2

Question
Matrices
asked 2021-03-08
(square roots of the identity matrix) For how many 2x2 matrices A is it true that \(A^2=I\) ? Now answer the same question for n x n matrices where n>2

Answers (1)

2021-03-09
Step 1
To find how many matricec A of order 2 exists such that \(A^2=I\)
Here we have to find \(A^2=A \times A =I\)
Let us consider any arbitrary matrix of order 2. \(A=\begin{pmatrix}a & b \\c & d \end{pmatrix}\)
Then \(A^2\) is given by \(A^2=\begin{pmatrix}a & b \\c & d \end{pmatrix} \begin{pmatrix}a & b \\c & d \end{pmatrix} = \begin{pmatrix}a^2+bc & ab+bd \\ca+dc & d^2+bc \end{pmatrix}\)
Now from \(A^2=I\) , we get \(A^2 = \begin{pmatrix}a^2+bc & b(a+d) \\c(a+d) & d^2+bc \end{pmatrix} = \begin{pmatrix}1 & 0 \\ 0 & 1 \end{pmatrix} =I\)
\((1) a^2+bc=1\)
\((2) d^2+bc=1\)
\((3) b(a+d)=0\)
\((3) c(a+d)=0\)
Step 2
Case 1:
If \((a+d) \neq 0\)
From (3) we get : b=0
From (4) we get : c=0
From (1) we get : \(a^2=1 \Rightarrow a=\pm1\)
From (2) we get : \(d^2=1 \Rightarrow d=\pm1\)
Therefore we get the matrix of the form
\(\left\{A=\begin{pmatrix}a & 0 \\0 & d \end{pmatrix} : a=\pm1 , d= \pm1 \right\}\) Therefore there are only 4 matrices exist such that \(A^2=I\) from case 1.
Step 3
Case 2:
If \((a+d)=0\)
sub case a:
If a=0 , that implies d=0
Then from(1 ) and (2) , we get : \(bc=1 \Rightarrow c=b^{-1}=\frac{1}{b}\) in real numbers.
Therefore we get the matrix of the form
\(\left\{A=\begin{pmatrix} 0 & a \\a^{-1} & 0 \end{pmatrix} :a \in F \right\}\) Therefore there are infinitely many matrices exist if the field is the set of real numbers such that \(A^2=I\)
Step 4
We can also consider further subcases to find the type of involuntary matrices, but as the question is asked to find how many, we have already got infinitely many \(2 \times 2\) matrices of such type.
Similarly for any n>2 , we can find infinitely many matrices satisfying this condition on the field of real numbers.
0

Relevant Questions

asked 2021-01-04
In the following question there are statements which are TRUE and statements which are FALSE.
Choose all the statements which are FALSE.
1. If the number of equations in a linear system exceeds the number of unknowns, then the system must be inconsistent - thus no solution.
2. If B has a column with zeros, then AB will also have a column with zeros, if this product is defined.
3. If AB + BA is defined, then A and B are square matrices of the same size/dimension/order.
4. Suppose A is an n x n matrix and assume A^2 = O, where O is the zero matrix. Then A = O.
5. If A and B are n x n matrices such that AB = I, then BA = I, where I is the identity matrix.
asked 2020-12-25
Case: Dr. Jung’s Diamonds Selection
With Christmas coming, Dr. Jung became interested in buying diamonds for his wife. After perusing the Web, he learned about the “4Cs” of diamonds: cut, color, clarity, and carat. He knew his wife wanted round-cut earrings mounted in white gold settings, so he immediately narrowed his focus to evaluating color, clarity, and carat for that style earring.
After a bit of searching, Dr. Jung located a number of earring sets that he would consider purchasing. But he knew the pricing of diamonds varied considerably. To assist in his decision making, Dr. Jung decided to use regression analysis to develop a model to predict the retail price of different sets of round-cut earrings based on their color, clarity, and carat scores. He assembled the data in the file Diamonds.xls for this purpose. Use this data to answer the following questions for Dr. Jung.
1) Prepare scatter plots showing the relationship between the earring prices (Y) and each of the potential independent variables. What sort of relationship does each plot suggest?
2) Let X1, X2, and X3 represent diamond color, clarity, and carats, respectively. If Dr. Jung wanted to build a linear regression model to estimate earring prices using these variables, which variables would you recommend that he use? Why?
3) Suppose Dr. Jung decides to use clarity (X2) and carats (X3) as independent variables in a regression model to predict earring prices. What is the estimated regression equation? What is the value of the R2 and adjusted-R2 statistics?
4) Use the regression equation identified in the previous question to create estimated prices for each of the earring sets in Dr. Jung’s sample. Which sets of earrings appear to be overpriced and which appear to be bargains? Based on this analysis, which set of earrings would you suggest that Dr. Jung purchase?
5) Dr. Jung now remembers that it sometimes helps to perform a square root transformation on the dependent variable in a regression problem. Modify your spreadsheet to include a new dependent variable that is the square root on the earring prices (use Excel’s SQRT( ) function). If Dr. Jung wanted to build a linear regression model to estimate the square root of earring prices using the same independent variables as before, which variables would you recommend that he use? Why?
1
6) Suppose Dr. Jung decides to use clarity (X2) and carats (X3) as independent variables in a regression model to predict the square root of the earring prices. What is the estimated regression equation? What is the value of the R2 and adjusted-R2 statistics?
7) Use the regression equation identified in the previous question to create estimated prices for each of the earring sets in Dr. Jung’s sample. (Remember, your model estimates the square root of the earring prices. So you must actually square the model’s estimates to convert them to price estimates.) Which sets of earring appears to be overpriced and which appear to be bargains? Based on this analysis, which set of earrings would you suggest that Dr. Jung purchase?
8) Dr. Jung now also remembers that it sometimes helps to include interaction terms in a regression model—where you create a new independent variable as the product of two of the original variables. Modify your spreadsheet to include three new independent variables, X4, X5, and X6, representing interaction terms where: X4 = X1 × X2, X5 = X1 × X3, and X6 = X2 × X3. There are now six potential independent variables. If Dr. Jung wanted to build a linear regression model to estimate the square root of earring prices using the same independent variables as before, which variables would you recommend that he use? Why?
9) Suppose Dr. Jung decides to use color (X1), carats (X3) and the interaction terms X4 (color * clarity) and X5 (color * carats) as independent variables in a regression model to predict the square root of the earring prices. What is the estimated regression equation? What is the value of the R2 and adjusted-R2 statistics?
10) Use the regression equation identified in the previous question to create estimated prices for each of the earring sets in Dr. Jung’s sample. (Remember, your model estimates the square root of the earring prices. So you must square the model’s estimates to convert them to actual price estimates.) Which sets of earrings appear to be overpriced and which appear to be bargains? Based on this analysis, which set of earrings would you suggest that Dr. Jung purchase?
asked 2021-02-25
Let B be a \(4 \times 4\) matrix to which we apply the following operations:
1. double column 1,
2. halve row 3,
3. add row 3 to row 1,
4. interchange columns 1 and 4,
5. subtract row 2 from each of the other rows,
6. replace column 4 by column 3,
7. delete column 1 (so that the column dimension is reduced by 1).
(a) Write the result as a product of eight matrices.
(b) Write it again as a product ABC (same B) of three matrices.
asked 2020-11-10
If \(A=\begin{bmatrix}-2 & 1&-4 \\-2 & 4&-1 \\ 1 &-1 &-4 \end{bmatrix} \text{ and } B=\begin{bmatrix}-2 & 4&2 \\-4 & -1&1 \\ 4 &1 &1 \end{bmatrix}\)
then AB=?
BA=?
True or false : AB=BA for any two square matrices A and B of the same size.
asked 2021-02-08
Let B be a 4x4 matrix to which we apply the following operations:
1. double column 1,
2. halve row 3,
3. add row 3 to row 1,
4. interchange columns 1 and 4,
5. subtract row 2 from each of the other rows,
6. replace column 4 by column 3,
7. delete column 1 (column dimension is reduced by 1).
(a) Write the result as a product of eight matrices.
(b) Write it again as a product of ABC (same B) of three matrices.
asked 2021-02-02
For the following Leslie matrix , find an approximate expression for the population distribution after n years , given that the initial population distribution is given by \(X(0)=\begin{bmatrix}2000 \\4000 \end{bmatrix} , L^n=\begin{bmatrix}0.8 & 0.4 \\1.2 & 0 \end{bmatrix}\)
Select the correct choice below and fill in the answer boxes to complete your choise.
a)\(X\approx()()^n\begin{bmatrix}1 \\ () \end{bmatrix}\)
b)\(X\approx()^n\begin{bmatrix}1 \\ () \end{bmatrix}\)
asked 2021-01-31
Let A,B and C be square matrices such that AB=AC , If \(A \neq 0\) , then B=C.
Is this True or False?Explain the reasosing behind the answer.
asked 2021-01-17
A new thermostat has been engineered for the frozen food cases in large supermarkets. Both the old and new thermostats hold temperatures at an average of \(25^{\circ}F\). However, it is hoped that the new thermostat might be more dependable in the sense that it will hold temperatures closer to \(25^{\circ}F\). One frozen food case was equipped with the new thermostat, and a random sample of 21 temperature readings gave a sample variance of 5.1. Another similar frozen food case was equipped with the old thermostat, and a random sample of 19 temperature readings gave a sample variance of 12.8. Test the claim that the population variance of the old thermostat temperature readings is larger than that for the new thermostat. Use a \(5\%\) level of significance. How could your test conclusion relate to the question regarding the dependability of the temperature readings? (Let population 1 refer to data from the old thermostat.)
(a) What is the level of significance?
State the null and alternate hypotheses.
\(H0:?_{1}^{2}=?_{2}^{2},H1:?_{1}^{2}>?_{2}^{2}H0:?_{1}^{2}=?_{2}^{2},H1:?_{1}^{2}\neq?_{2}^{2}H0:?_{1}^{2}=?_{2}^{2},H1:?_{1}^{2}?_{2}^{2},H1:?_{1}^{2}=?_{2}^{2}\)
(b) Find the value of the sample F statistic. (Round your answer to two decimal places.)
What are the degrees of freedom?
\(df_{N} = ?\)
\(df_{D} = ?\)
What assumptions are you making about the original distribution?
The populations follow independent normal distributions. We have random samples from each population.The populations follow dependent normal distributions. We have random samples from each population.The populations follow independent normal distributions.The populations follow independent chi-square distributions. We have random samples from each population.
(c) Find or estimate the P-value of the sample test statistic. (Round your answer to four decimal places.)
(d) Based on your answers in parts (a) to (c), will you reject or fail to reject the null hypothesis?
At the ? = 0.05 level, we fail to reject the null hypothesis and conclude the data are not statistically significant.At the ? = 0.05 level, we fail to reject the null hypothesis and conclude the data are statistically significant. At the ? = 0.05 level, we reject the null hypothesis and conclude the data are not statistically significant.At the ? = 0.05 level, we reject the null hypothesis and conclude the data are statistically significant.
(e) Interpret your conclusion in the context of the application.
Reject the null hypothesis, there is sufficient evidence that the population variance is larger in the old thermostat temperature readings.Fail to reject the null hypothesis, there is sufficient evidence that the population variance is larger in the old thermostat temperature readings. Fail to reject the null hypothesis, there is insufficient evidence that the population variance is larger in the old thermostat temperature readings.Reject the null hypothesis, there is insufficient evidence that the population variance is larger in the old thermostat temperature readings.
asked 2020-12-16
Consider the matrices
\(A=\begin{bmatrix}1 & -1 \\0 & 1 \end{bmatrix},B=\begin{bmatrix}2 & 3 \\1 & 5 \end{bmatrix},C=\begin{bmatrix}1 & 0 \\0 & 8 \end{bmatrix},D=\begin{bmatrix}2 & 0 &-1\\1 & 4&3\\5&4&2 \end{bmatrix} \text{ and } F=\begin{bmatrix}2 & -1 &0\\0 & 1&1\\2&0&3 \end{bmatrix}\)
a) Show that A,B,C,D and F are invertible matrices.
b) Solve the following equations for the unknown matrix X.
(i) \(AX^T=BC^3\)
(ii) \(A^{-1}(X-T)^T=(B^{-1})^T\)
(iii) \(XF=F^{-1}-D^T\)
asked 2021-02-19
Determine whether each of the following statements is true or false, and explain why.If A and B are square matrices of the same size, then AB = BA
...