Definitions

Complement rule

\(P(A^{c})=P(\text{not}\ A)=1-P(A)\)

Definition conditional probability:

\(P(B or A)=\frac{P(A \cap B)}{P(A)}=\frac{P(A and B)}{P(A)}\)

Solution

\(\begin{array} {c|cc|c} & \text { Female } & \text { Male } & \text { Total } \\ \hline \text { Almost no chance } & 96 & 98 & 194 \\ \hline \text { Some chance but probably not } & 426 & 286 & 712 \\ \hline \text { A 50-50 chance } & 696 & 720 & 1416 \\ \hline \text { A good chance } & 663 & 758 & 1421 \\ \hline \text { Almost certain } & 486 & 597 & 1083 \\ \hline \text { Total } & 2367 & 2459 & 4826 \end{array}\)

N=Almost no chance

M=Male

We note that the table contains information about 4826 young adults (given in the bottom right corner of the table).

Moreover, 194 of the 4826 young adults have the opinion "Almost no chance” because 194 is mentioned in the row ” Almost no chance” and in the column "Total " of the table. This then implies that 4826-194 = 4632 young adults do not have the opinion of "Almost no chance"

The probability is the number of favorable outcomes divided by the number of possible outcomes:

\(P(N^c)=\frac{\text{# of favorable outcomes}}{\text{of possible outcomes}}=\frac{4632}{4826}\)

Next, we note that 96 of the 4826 young adults are female and have the opinion ” Almost no chance”, because 96 is mentioned in the row ” Almost no chance” and in the column *Female” of the given table. Since there are 2367 females, 2367 - 96 = 2271 of the 4826 young adults did not have the opinion ” Almost no chance.” \(P(M^c \text{and} N^c)=\frac{\text{# of favorable outcomes}}{\text{of possible outcomes}}=\frac{2271}{4826}\)

Use the definition of conditional probability:

\(P(M^c | N^c)=\frac{P(M^c \text{and} N^c)}{P(N^c)}=\frac{\frac{2271}{4826}}{\frac{4632}{4826}}=\frac{2271}{4632}=\frac{757}{1544} \approx 0.4903 = 49.03\%\)

Result \(\frac{757}{1544} \approx 0.4903 = 49.03\%\)

Complement rule

\(P(A^{c})=P(\text{not}\ A)=1-P(A)\)

Definition conditional probability:

\(P(B or A)=\frac{P(A \cap B)}{P(A)}=\frac{P(A and B)}{P(A)}\)

Solution

\(\begin{array} {c|cc|c} & \text { Female } & \text { Male } & \text { Total } \\ \hline \text { Almost no chance } & 96 & 98 & 194 \\ \hline \text { Some chance but probably not } & 426 & 286 & 712 \\ \hline \text { A 50-50 chance } & 696 & 720 & 1416 \\ \hline \text { A good chance } & 663 & 758 & 1421 \\ \hline \text { Almost certain } & 486 & 597 & 1083 \\ \hline \text { Total } & 2367 & 2459 & 4826 \end{array}\)

N=Almost no chance

M=Male

We note that the table contains information about 4826 young adults (given in the bottom right corner of the table).

Moreover, 194 of the 4826 young adults have the opinion "Almost no chance” because 194 is mentioned in the row ” Almost no chance” and in the column "Total " of the table. This then implies that 4826-194 = 4632 young adults do not have the opinion of "Almost no chance"

The probability is the number of favorable outcomes divided by the number of possible outcomes:

\(P(N^c)=\frac{\text{# of favorable outcomes}}{\text{of possible outcomes}}=\frac{4632}{4826}\)

Next, we note that 96 of the 4826 young adults are female and have the opinion ” Almost no chance”, because 96 is mentioned in the row ” Almost no chance” and in the column *Female” of the given table. Since there are 2367 females, 2367 - 96 = 2271 of the 4826 young adults did not have the opinion ” Almost no chance.” \(P(M^c \text{and} N^c)=\frac{\text{# of favorable outcomes}}{\text{of possible outcomes}}=\frac{2271}{4826}\)

Use the definition of conditional probability:

\(P(M^c | N^c)=\frac{P(M^c \text{and} N^c)}{P(N^c)}=\frac{\frac{2271}{4826}}{\frac{4632}{4826}}=\frac{2271}{4632}=\frac{757}{1544} \approx 0.4903 = 49.03\%\)

Result \(\frac{757}{1544} \approx 0.4903 = 49.03\%\)