# A survey of 4826 randomly selected young adults (aged 19 to 25 ) asked, "What do you think are the chances you will have much more than a middle-class income at age 30? The two-way table summarizes the responses. begin{array} {c|cc|c} & text { Female } & text { Male } & text { Total } hline text { Almost no chance } & 96 & 98 & 194 hline text { Some chance but probably not } & 426 & 286 & 712 hline text { A 50-50 chance } & 696 & 720 & 1416 hline text { A good chance } & 663 & 758 & 1421 hline text { Almost certain } & 486 & 597 & 1083 hline text { Total } & 2367 & 2459 & 4826 end{array} Choose a survey respondent at random. Define events G: a good chance, M: male, and N: almost no chance. Given that the chosen student didn't say "almost no chance," what's the probability tha Question
Two-way tables A survey of 4826 randomly selected young adults (aged 19 to 25 ) asked, "What do you think are the chances you will have much more than a middle-class income at age 30? The two-way table summarizes the responses.
$$\begin{array} {c|cc|c} & \text { Female } & \text { Male } & \text { Total } \\ \hline \text { Almost no chance } & 96 & 98 & 194 \\ \hline \text { Some chance but probably not } & 426 & 286 & 712 \\ \hline \text { A 50-50 chance } & 696 & 720 & 1416 \\ \hline \text { A good chance } & 663 & 758 & 1421 \\ \hline \text { Almost certain } & 486 & 597 & 1083 \\ \hline \text { Total } & 2367 & 2459 & 4826 \end{array}$$
Choose a survey respondent at random. Define events G: a good chance, M: male, and N: almost no chance. Given that the chosen student didn't say "almost no chance," what's the probability that this person is female? Write your answer as a probability statement using correct symbols for the events. 2021-01-20
Definitions
Complement rule
$$P(A^{c})=P(\text{not}\ A)=1-P(A)$$
Definition conditional probability:
$$P(B or A)=\frac{P(A \cap B)}{P(A)}=\frac{P(A and B)}{P(A)}$$
Solution
$$\begin{array} {c|cc|c} & \text { Female } & \text { Male } & \text { Total } \\ \hline \text { Almost no chance } & 96 & 98 & 194 \\ \hline \text { Some chance but probably not } & 426 & 286 & 712 \\ \hline \text { A 50-50 chance } & 696 & 720 & 1416 \\ \hline \text { A good chance } & 663 & 758 & 1421 \\ \hline \text { Almost certain } & 486 & 597 & 1083 \\ \hline \text { Total } & 2367 & 2459 & 4826 \end{array}$$
N=Almost no chance
M=Male
We note that the table contains information about 4826 young adults (given in the bottom right corner of the table).
Moreover, 194 of the 4826 young adults have the opinion "Almost no chance” because 194 is mentioned in the row ” Almost no chance” and in the column "Total " of the table. This then implies that 4826-194 = 4632 young adults do not have the opinion of "Almost no chance"
The probability is the number of favorable outcomes divided by the number of possible outcomes:
$$P(N^c)=\frac{\text{# of favorable outcomes}}{\text{of possible outcomes}}=\frac{4632}{4826}$$
Next, we note that 96 of the 4826 young adults are female and have the opinion ” Almost no chance”, because 96 is mentioned in the row ” Almost no chance” and in the column *Female” of the given table. Since there are 2367 females, 2367 - 96 = 2271 of the 4826 young adults did not have the opinion ” Almost no chance.” $$P(M^c \text{and} N^c)=\frac{\text{# of favorable outcomes}}{\text{of possible outcomes}}=\frac{2271}{4826}$$
Use the definition of conditional probability:
$$P(M^c | N^c)=\frac{P(M^c \text{and} N^c)}{P(N^c)}=\frac{\frac{2271}{4826}}{\frac{4632}{4826}}=\frac{2271}{4632}=\frac{757}{1544} \approx 0.4903 = 49.03\%$$
Result $$\frac{757}{1544} \approx 0.4903 = 49.03\%$$

### Relevant Questions A survey of 4826 randomly selected young adults (aged 19 to 25) asked, "What do you think are the chances you will have much more than a middle-class income at age 30?" The two-way table summarizes the responses.
$$\begin{array}{c|cc|c} &\text { Female } & \text { Male } & \text { Total } \\ \hline \text { Almost no chance } & 96 & 98 & 194 \\ \hline \text { Some chance but } \ \text { probably not } & 426 & 286 & 712 \\\hline \text { A 50-50 chance } & 696 & 720 & 1416 \\ \hline \text { A good chance } & 663 & 758 & 1421 \\ \hline \text { Almost certain } & 486 & 597 & 1083 \\ \hline \text { Total } & 2367 & 2459 & 4826 \end{array}$$
Choose a survey respondent at random. Define events G: a good chance, M: male, and N: almost no chance. Find P(C∣M). Interpret this value in context. A survey of 4826 randomly selected young adults (aged 19 to 25 ) asked, "What do you think are the chances you will have much more than a middle-class income at age 30?" The two-way table summarizes the responses. PSK\begin{array} {lc} & \text{Gender} \ \text {Opinion} & \begin{array}{l|c|c|c} & Female & Male & Total \\ \hline Almost no chance & 96 & 98 & 194 \\ \hline \begin{array}{l} Some chance but \\ robably not \end{array} & 426 & 286 & 712 \\ \hline A 50-50 chance & 696 & 720 & 1416 \\ \hline A good chance & 663 & 758 & 1421 \\ \hline Almost certain & 486 & 597 & 1083 \\ \hline Total & 2367 & 2459 & 4826 \end{array}\ \end{array}ZSK Choose a survey respondent at random. Define events G: a good chance, M: male, and N: almost no chance. Find P(G | M). Interpret this value in context. Is there a relationship between gender and relative finger length? To find out, we randomly selected 452 U.S. high school students who completed a survey. The two-way table summarizes the relationship between gender and which finger was longer on the left hand (index finger or ring finger).
$$\begin{array} {lc} & \text{Gender} \ \text {Longer finger} & \begin{array}{l|c|r|r} & \text { Female } & \text { Male } & \text { Total } \\\hline \text { Index finger } & 78 & 45 & 123 \\\hline \text{ Ring finger } & 82 & 152 & 234 \\ \hline \text { Same length } & 52 & 43 & 95 \\ \hline \text { Total } & 212 & 240 & 452 \end{array}\ \end{array}$$
Suppose we randomly select one of the survey respondents. Define events R: ring finger longer and F: female. Given that the chosen student does not have a longer ring finger, what's the probability that this person is male? Write your answer as a probability statement using correct symbols for the events. A random sample of 88 U.S. 11th- and 12th-graders was selected. The two-way table summarizes the gender of the students and their response to the question "Do you have allergies?" Suppose we choose a student from this group at random.
$$\begin{array}{c|cc|c} & \text { Female } & \text { Male } & \text { Total } \\ \hline \text{ Yes } & 19 & 15 & 34 \\ \text{ No } & 24 & 30 & 54 \\ \hline \text{ Total } & 43 & 45 & 88\\ \end{array}\$$
What is the probability that the student is female or has allergies?
$$(a)\frac{19}{88}$$
(b)\frac{39}{88}\)
(c)\frac{58}{88}\)
(d)\frac{77}{88}\) Researchers carried out a survey of fourth-, fifth-, and sixth-grade students in Michigan. Students were asked whether good grades, athletic ability, or being popular was most important to them. This two-way table summarizes the survey data. PSK\begin{array} {lc} & Grade \ Most important & \begin{array}{l|c|c|c|c} & \begin{array}{c} 4 \mathrm{th} \ grade \end{array} & \begin{array}{c} 5 \mathrm{th} \ \text { grade } \end{array} & \begin{array}{c} 6 \mathrm{th} \ grade \end{array} & Total \\ \hline Grades & 49 & 50 & 69 & 168 \\ \hline Athletic & 24 & 36 & 38 & 98 \\ \hline Popular & 19 & 22 & 28 & 69 \\ \hline Total & 92 & 108 & 135 & 335 \end{array} \ \end{array}ZSK Suppose we select one of these students at random. What's the probability that: The student is a sixth grader or a student who rated good grades as important? The two-way table summarizes data on the gender and eye color of students in a college statistics class. Imagine choosing a student from the class at random. Define event A: student is male and event B: student has blue eyes.
$$\begin{array}{c|cc|c} &\text{Male}&\text{Female}&\text{Total}\\ \hline \text{Blue}&&&10\\ \text{Brown}&&&40\\ \hline \text{Total}&20&30&50 \end{array}\$$
Copy and complete the two-way table so that events A and B are mutually exclusive. The table below shows the number of people for three different race groups who were shot by police that were either armed or unarmed. These values are very close to the exact numbers. They have been changed slightly for each student to get a unique problem.
Suspect was Armed:
Black - 543
White - 1176
Hispanic - 378
Total - 2097
Suspect was unarmed:
Black - 60
White - 67
Hispanic - 38
Total - 165
Total:
Black - 603
White - 1243
Hispanic - 416
Total - 2262
Give your answer as a decimal to at least three decimal places.
a) What percent are Black?
b) What percent are Unarmed?
c) In order for two variables to be Independent of each other, the P $$(A and B) = P(A) \cdot P(B) P(A and B) = P(A) \cdot P(B).$$
This just means that the percentage of times that both things happen equals the individual percentages multiplied together (Only if they are Independent of each other).
Therefore, if a person's race is independent of whether they were killed being unarmed then the percentage of black people that are killed while being unarmed should equal the percentage of blacks times the percentage of Unarmed. Let's check this. Multiply your answer to part a (percentage of blacks) by your answer to part b (percentage of unarmed).
Remember, the previous answer is only correct if the variables are Independent.
d) Now let's get the real percent that are Black and Unarmed by using the table?
If answer c is "significantly different" than answer d, then that means that there could be a different percentage of unarmed people being shot based on race. We will check this out later in the course.
Let's compare the percentage of unarmed shot for each race.
e) What percent are White and Unarmed?
f) What percent are Hispanic and Unarmed?
If you compare answers d, e and f it shows the highest percentage of unarmed people being shot is most likely white.
Why is that?
This is because there are more white people in the United States than any other race and therefore there are likely to be more white people in the table. Since there are more white people in the table, there most likely would be more white and unarmed people shot by police than any other race. This pulls the percentage of white and unarmed up. In addition, there most likely would be more white and armed shot by police. All the percentages for white people would be higher, because there are more white people. For example, the table contains very few Hispanic people, and the percentage of people in the table that were Hispanic and unarmed is the lowest percentage.
Think of it this way. If you went to a college that was 90% female and 10% male, then females would most likely have the highest percentage of A grades. They would also most likely have the highest percentage of B, C, D and F grades
The correct way to compare is "conditional probability". Conditional probability is getting the probability of something happening, given we are dealing with just the people in a particular group.
g) What percent of blacks shot and killed by police were unarmed?
h) What percent of whites shot and killed by police were unarmed?
i) What percent of Hispanics shot and killed by police were unarmed?
You can see by the answers to part g and h, that the percentage of blacks that were unarmed and killed by police is approximately twice that of whites that were unarmed and killed by police.
j) Why do you believe this is happening?
Do a search on the internet for reasons why blacks are more likely to be killed by police. Read a few articles on the topic. Write your response using the articles as references. Give the websites used in your response. Your answer should be several sentences long with at least one website listed. This part of this problem will be graded after the due date. The Pew Research Center asked a random sample of 2024 adult cellphone owners from the United States their age and which type of cell phone they own: iPhone, Android, or other (including non-smartphones). The two-way table summarizes the data.
$$\begin{array}{c|ccc|c} & 18-34 & 35-54 & 55+ & \text { Total } \\ \hline \text { iPhone } & 169 & 171 & 127 & 467 \\ \text { Androod } & 214 & 189 & 100 & 503 \\ \text { Other } & 134 & 277 & 643 & 1054 \\ \hline \text { Total } & 517 & 637 & 870 & 2024 \end{array}$$
Suppose we select one of the survey respondents at random. What's the probability that: The person is not age 18 to 34 and does not own an iPhone? $$\begin{array}{c|c}& 4th\ grade & 5th\ grade & 6th\ grade &Total \\ \hline Grades &49&50&69&168\\ \text{Athletic} &24&36&38&98\\ \text{Popular}\ &19&22&28&69\\ \hline \text{Total} & 92 & 108 & 135 &335 \end{array}$$ $$\begin{array}{c|c} & 4th\ grade & 5th\ grade & 6th\ grade &Total \\ \hline Grades &49&50&69&168\\ Athletic &24&36&38&98\\ Popular\ &19&22&28&69\\ \hline Total & 92 & 108 & 135 &335 \end{array}$$