Find a real-life data set that can be represented by a two-way table. Then make a two-way table for the data set.

Two-way tables
asked 2020-12-25
Find a real-life data set that can be represented by a two-way table. Then make a two-way table for the data set.

Answers (1)

Let us consider an example of real data-set that can be represented in two way data, set
Consider Axe company is doing a market research on there perfume products of different flavors. They took 3 different flavored Axe products. Out of the 30 people in the sample 12 likes the first flavor, 8 likes the second flavor, and 10 likes the third. Of those who viewed the first flavor, 8 indicated that they were likely to buy the product while the rest said they were either unsure or unlikely to buy the product. For those viewing the second flavor, 6 said they were likely to buy the product and for the third 7 said the same. The two-way table for the example is
\(\begin{array}{c|c} & Flavor\ 1 & Flavor\ 2 & Flavor\ 3 \\ \hline Likely\ to\ buy & 8 & 6 & 7\\ \hline Unsure\ or\ Unlikely\ to\ buy & 4 & 2 & 3\\ \hline Total & 12 & 8 & 10 \end{array}\)
We have considered an example of Axe flavors for the two way tab

Relevant Questions

asked 2021-01-27
One hundred adults and children were randomly selected and asked whether they spoke more than one language fluently. The data were recorded in a two-way table. Maria and Brennan each used the data to make the tables of joint relative frequencies shown below, but their results are slightly different. The difference is shaded. Can you tell by looking at the tables which of them made an error? Explain.
asked 2020-11-23
The accompanying two-way table was constructed using data in the article “Television Viewing and Physical Fitness in Adults” (Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 1990: 315–320). The author hoped to determine whether time spent watching television is associated with cardiovascular fitness. Subjects were asked about their television-viewing habits and were classified as physically fit if they scored in the excellent or very good category on a step test. We include MINITAB output from a chi-squared analysis. The four TV groups corresponded to different amounts of time per day spent watching TV (0, 1–2, 3–4, or 5 or more hours). The 168 individuals represented in the first column were those judged physically fit. Expected counts appear below observed counts, and MINITAB displays the contribution to \(\displaystyle{x}^{{{2}}}\) from each cell.
State and test the appropriate hypotheses using \(\displaystyle\alpha={0.05}\)
\(\displaystyle{b}{e}{g}\in{\left\lbrace{a}{r}{r}{a}{y}\right\rbrace}{\left\lbrace{\left|{c}\right|}{c}{\mid}\right\rbrace}{h}{l}\in{e}&{a}\mp,\ {1}&{a}\mp,\ {2}&{a}\mp,\ {T}{o}{t}{a}{l}\backslash{h}{l}\in{e}{1}&{a}\mp,\ {35}&{a}\mp,\ {147}&{a}\mp,\ {182}\backslash{h}{l}\in{e}&{a}\mp,\ {25.48}&{a}\mp,\ {156.52}&{a}\mp,\backslash{h}{l}\in{e}{2}&{a}\mp,\ {101}&{a}\mp,\ {629}&{a}\mp,\ {730}\backslash{h}{l}\in{e}&{a}\mp,\ {102.20}&{a}\mp,\ {627.80}&{a}\mp,\backslash{h}{l}\in{e}{3}&{a}\mp,\ {28}&{a}\mp,\ {222}&{a}\mp,\ {250}\backslash{h}{l}\in{e}&{a}\mp,\ {35.00}&{a}\mp,\ {215.00}&{a}\mp,\backslash{h}{l}\in{e}{4}&{a}\mp,\ {4}&{a}\mp,\ {34}&{a}\mp,\ {38}\backslash{h}{l}\in{e}&{a}\mp,\ {5.32}&{a}\mp,\ {32.68}&{a}\mp,\backslash{h}{l}\in{e}{T}{o}{t}{a}{l}&{a}\mp,\ {168}&{a}\mp,\ {1032}&{a}\mp,\ {1200}\backslash{h}{l}\in{e}\)
\(\displaystyle{C}{h}{i}{s}{q}={a}\mp,\ {3.557}\ +\ {0.579}\ +\ {a}\mp,\ {0.014}\ +\ {0.002}\ +\ {a}\mp,\ {1.400}\ +\ {0.228}\ +\ {a}\mp,\ {0.328}\ +\ {0.053}={6.161}\)
asked 2021-01-19
The following is a two-way table showing preferences for an award (A, B, C) by gender for the students sampled in survey. Test whether the data indicate there is some association between gender and preferred award.
\(\begin{array}{|c|c|c|}\hline &\text{A}&\text{B}&\text{C}&\text{Total}\\\hline \text{Female} &20&76&73&169\\ \hline \text{Male}&11&73&109&193 \\ \hline \text{Total}&31&149&182&360 \\ \hline \end{array}\\\)
Chi-square statistic=?
Conclusion: (reject or do not reject \(H_0\))
Does the test indicate an association between gender and preferred award? (yes/no)
asked 2020-10-20
The two-way table shows the eye color of 200 cats participating in a cat show.
\(\begin{array}{c|ccc|c} &\text { Green } & \text { Blue }& \text { Yellow }& \text { Total }\\ \hline \text{ Male } & 40&24&16&80\\ \text{ Female} &30&60&30&120\\ \hline \text{Total}&70&84&46&200 \end{array}\\)
Make a two-way relative frequency table to show the distribution of the data with respect to gender. Round to the nearest tenth of a percent, as needed.
asked 2021-03-02
In a General Social Survey of Americans in 1991, two variables, gender and finding life exciting or dull, were measured on 980 individuals. The two-way table below summarizes the results.
Let A = randomly chosen person is female
Let B = randomly chosen person finds life exciting
(a) Find P(A | B)
(b) Are the events A & B independent?
\(\begin{array}{ccc}\text{Original Counts}&\text{Exciting}&\text{Routine}&\text{Dull}&\text{Total}\\\hline \text{Male} &213&200&12&425\\ \text{Female}&221&305&29&555\\ \text{Female}&434&505&41&980 \end{array}\)
asked 2020-12-24
A local school has both male and female students Each student either plays a sport or doesn't. The two-way table summarizes a random sample of 80 students.
\(\begin{array}{|c|c|c|}\hline& \text{Female} & \text{male} \\ \hline\text{No sport} & 12&15\\\hline\text{Sport}&36&17\\ \hline\end{array}\)
Let sport be the event that a randomly chosen student (from the table) plays a sport
Let female be the event that a randomly chosen student (from the table) is female.
Find the following probabilities. Write your answers as decimals.
asked 2021-03-04
How are the smoking habits of students related to their parents' smoking? Here is a two-way table from a survey of student s in eight Arizona high schools:
\(\begin{array}{c|c}&\text{Student smokes}&\text{Student does not smoke}&\text{Total}\\\hline\text{Both parents smoke}&400&1380&400+1380=1780\\\hline\text{One parent smokes}&416&1823&416+1823=2239\\\hline\text{Neither parent smokes}&188&1168&188+1168=1356\\\hline\text{Total}&400+416+188=1004&1380+1823+1168=4371&1004+4371=5375\end{array}\)
(a) Write the null and alternative hypotheses for the question of interest.
(b) Find the expected cell counts. Write a sentence that explains in simple language what "expected counts" are.
(c) Find the chi-square statistic, its degrees of freedom, and the P-value.
(d) What is your conclusion about significance?
asked 2020-10-26
Is there a relationship between gender and relative finger length? To find out, we randomly selected 452 U.S. high school students who completed a survey. The two-way table summarizes the relationship between gender and which finger was longer on the left hand (index finger or ring finger).
\(\begin{array} {lc} & \text{Gender} \ \text {Longer finger} & \begin{array}{l|c|r|r} & \text { Female } & \text { Male } & \text { Total } \\\hline \text { Index finger } & 78 & 45 & 123 \\\hline \text{ Ring finger } & 82 & 152 & 234 \\ \hline \text { Same length } & 52 & 43 & 95 \\ \hline \text { Total } & 212 & 240 & 452 \end{array}\ \end{array}\)
Suppose we randomly select one of the survey respondents. Define events R: ring finger longer and F: female. Given that the chosen student does not have a longer ring finger, what's the probability that this person is male? Write your answer as a probability statement using correct symbols for the events.
asked 2021-03-08
Using data from the 2000 census, a random sample of 348 U.S. residents aged 18 and older was selected. The two-way table summarizes the relationship between marital status and housing status for these residents. \(\displaystyle{b}{e}{g}\in{\left\lbrace{a}{r}{r}{a}{y}\right\rbrace}{\left\lbrace{l}{\left|{c}\right|}{c}{\mid}{c}\right\rbrace}&{M}{a}{r}{r}{i}{e}{d}&{N}{o}{t}{m}{a}{r}{r}{i}{e}{d}&{T}{o}{t}{a}{l}\backslash{h}{l}\in{e}{O}{w}{n}&{172}&{82}&{254}\backslash{h}{l}\in{e}{R}{e}{n}{t}&{40}&{54}&{94}\backslash{h}{l}\in{e}{T}{o}{t}{a}{l}&{212}&{136}&{348}{e}{n}{d}{\left\lbrace{a}{r}{r}{a}{y}\right\rbrace}\)
asked 2020-10-23
The table below shows the number of people for three different race groups who were shot by police that were either armed or unarmed. These values are very close to the exact numbers. They have been changed slightly for each student to get a unique problem.
Suspect was Armed:
Black - 543
White - 1176
Hispanic - 378
Total - 2097
Suspect was unarmed:
Black - 60
White - 67
Hispanic - 38
Total - 165
Black - 603
White - 1243
Hispanic - 416
Total - 2262
Give your answer as a decimal to at least three decimal places.
a) What percent are Black?
b) What percent are Unarmed?
c) In order for two variables to be Independent of each other, the P \((A and B) = P(A) \cdot P(B) P(A and B) = P(A) \cdot P(B).\)
This just means that the percentage of times that both things happen equals the individual percentages multiplied together (Only if they are Independent of each other).
Therefore, if a person's race is independent of whether they were killed being unarmed then the percentage of black people that are killed while being unarmed should equal the percentage of blacks times the percentage of Unarmed. Let's check this. Multiply your answer to part a (percentage of blacks) by your answer to part b (percentage of unarmed).
Remember, the previous answer is only correct if the variables are Independent.
d) Now let's get the real percent that are Black and Unarmed by using the table?
If answer c is "significantly different" than answer d, then that means that there could be a different percentage of unarmed people being shot based on race. We will check this out later in the course.
Let's compare the percentage of unarmed shot for each race.
e) What percent are White and Unarmed?
f) What percent are Hispanic and Unarmed?
If you compare answers d, e and f it shows the highest percentage of unarmed people being shot is most likely white.
Why is that?
This is because there are more white people in the United States than any other race and therefore there are likely to be more white people in the table. Since there are more white people in the table, there most likely would be more white and unarmed people shot by police than any other race. This pulls the percentage of white and unarmed up. In addition, there most likely would be more white and armed shot by police. All the percentages for white people would be higher, because there are more white people. For example, the table contains very few Hispanic people, and the percentage of people in the table that were Hispanic and unarmed is the lowest percentage.
Think of it this way. If you went to a college that was 90% female and 10% male, then females would most likely have the highest percentage of A grades. They would also most likely have the highest percentage of B, C, D and F grades
The correct way to compare is "conditional probability". Conditional probability is getting the probability of something happening, given we are dealing with just the people in a particular group.
g) What percent of blacks shot and killed by police were unarmed?
h) What percent of whites shot and killed by police were unarmed?
i) What percent of Hispanics shot and killed by police were unarmed?
You can see by the answers to part g and h, that the percentage of blacks that were unarmed and killed by police is approximately twice that of whites that were unarmed and killed by police.
j) Why do you believe this is happening?
Do a search on the internet for reasons why blacks are more likely to be killed by police. Read a few articles on the topic. Write your response using the articles as references. Give the websites used in your response. Your answer should be several sentences long with at least one website listed. This part of this problem will be graded after the due date.