a) Is the quality of a car affected by what day it was built? A car manufacturer examines a random sample of the warranty claims filed over the past two years to test whether defects are randomly distributed across days of the work week.
b) A medical researcher wants to know if blood cholesterol level is related to heart disease. She examines a database of 10,000 patients, testing whether the cholesterol level (in milligrams) is related to whether or not a person has heart disease.
c) A student wants to find out whether political leaning (liberal, moderate, or conservative) is related to choice of major. He surveys 500 randomly chosen students and performs a test.