Do men and women differ in their attitudes toward public corruption and tax evasion?

Jaden Easton 2021-08-06 Answered
Do men and women differ in their attitudes toward public corruption and tax evasion? This was the question of interest in a study published in Contemporary Economic Policy (Oct. 2010). The data for the analysis were obtained from a representative sample of over 30,000 Europeans. Each person was asked how justifiable it is for someone to (1) accept a bribe in the course of their duties and (2) cheat on their taxes. Responses were measured as 0, 1, 2, or 3, where O = "always justified" and 3 = "never justified." The large-sample Wilcoxon rank sum test was applied in order to compare the response distributions of men and women. a. Give the null hypothesis for the test in the words of the problem. b. An analysis of the "justifiability of corruption" responses yielded a large-sample test statistic of z = -14.10 with a corresponding p-value of approximately 0. Interpret this result. c. Refer to part b. Women had a larger rank sum statistic than men. What does this imply about gender attitudes. toward corruption? d. An analysis of the "justifiability of tax evasion" responses yielded a large-sample test statistic of z = -18.12 with a corresponding p-value of approximately 0. Interpret this result. e. Refer to part d. Again, women had a larger rank sum statistic than men. What does this imply about gender attitudes toward tax evasion?

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Expert Answer

insonsipthinye
Answered 2021-08-07 Author has 9326 answers
(a)H0=Identical population distributions
(b)Reject H0
(c)Men think corruption is more justifiable than women.
(d)Reject H0
(e)Men think tax evasion is more justifiable than women.
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asked 2021-06-29

Do men and women differ in their attitudes toward public corruption and tax evasion? This was the question of interest in a study published in Contemporary Economic Policy (Oct. 2010). The data for the analysis were obtained from a representative sample of over 30,000 Europeans. Each person was asked how justifiable it is for someone to (1) accept a bribe in the course of their duties and (2) cheat on their taxes. Responses were measured as 0, 1, 2, or 3, where O = "always justified" and 3 = "never justified." The large-sample Wilcoxon rank sum test was applied in order to compare the response distributions of men and women.

a. Give the null hypothesis for the test in the words of the problem.

b. An analysis of the "justifiability of corruption" responses yielded a large-sample test statistic of \(z = -14.10\) with a corresponding p-value of approximately 0. Interpret this result.

c. Refer to part b. Women had a larger rank sum statistic than men. What does this imply about gender attitudes. toward corruption?

d. An analysis of the "justifiability of tax evasion" responses yielded a large-sample test statistic of \(z = -18.12\) with a corresponding p-value of approximately 0. Interpret this result.

e. Refer to part d. Again, women had a larger rank sum statistic than men. What does this imply about gender attitudes toward tax evasion?

asked 2021-06-13
1. Who seems to have more variability in their shoe sizes, men or women?
a) Men
b) Women
c) Neither group show variability
d) Flag this Question
2. In general, why use the estimate of \(n-1\) rather than n in the computation of the standard deviation and variance?
a) The estimate n-1 is better because it is used for calculating the population variance and standard deviation
b) The estimate n-1 is never used to calculate the sample variance and standard deviation
c) \(n-1\) provides an unbiased estimate of the population and allows more variability when using a sample and gives a better mathematical estimate of the population
d) The estimate n-1 is better because it is use for calculation of both the population and sample variance as well as standard deviation.
\(\begin{array}{|c|c|}\hline \text{Shoe Size (in cm)} & \text{Gender (M of F)} \\ \hline 25.7 & M \\ \hline 25.4 & F \\ \hline 23.8 & F \\ \hline 25.4 & F \\ \hline 26.7 & M \\ \hline 23.8 & F \\ \hline 25.4 & F \\ \hline 25.4 & F \\ \hline 25.7 & M \\ \hline 25.7 & F \\ \hline 23.5 & F \\ \hline 23.1 & F \\ \hline 26 & M \\ \hline 23.5 & F \\ \hline 26.7 & F \\ \hline 26 & M \\ \hline 23.1 & F \\ \hline 25.1 & F \\ \hline 27 & M \\ \hline 25.4 & F \\ \hline 23.5 & F \\ \hline 23.8 & F \\ \hline 27 & M \\ \hline 25.7 & F \\ \hline \end{array}\)
\(\begin{array}{|c|c|}\hline \text{Shoe Size (in cm)} & \text{Gender (M of F)} \\ \hline 27.6 & M \\ \hline 26.9 & F \\ \hline 26 & F \\ \hline 28.4 & M \\ \hline 23.5 & F \\ \hline 27 & F \\ \hline 25.1 & F \\ \hline 28.4 & M \\ \hline 23.1 & F \\ \hline 23.8 & F \\ \hline 26 & F \\ \hline 25.4 & M \\ \hline 23.8 & F \\ \hline 24.8 & M \\ \hline 25.1 & F \\ \hline 24.8 & F \\ \hline 26 & M \\ \hline 25.4 & F \\ \hline 26 & M \\ \hline 27 & M \\ \hline 25.7 & F \\ \hline 27 & M \\ \hline 23.5 & F \\ \hline 29 & F \\ \hline \end{array}\)
asked 2021-10-16

1. Who seems to have more variability in their shoe sizes, men or women?
a) Men
b) Women
c) Neither group show variability
d) Flag this Question
2. In general, why use the estimate of \(\displaystyle{n}-{1}\) rather than n in the computation of the standard deviation and variance?
a) The estimate n-1 is better because it is used for calculating the population variance and standard deviation
b) The estimate n-1 is never used to calculate the sample variance and standard deviation
c) \(\displaystyle{n}-{1}\) provides an unbiased estimate of the population and allows more variability when using a sample and gives a better mathematical estimate of the population
d) The estimate n-1 is better because it is use for calculation of both the population and sample variance as well as standard deviation.
\(\begin{array}{|c|c|}\hline \text{Shoe Size (in cm)} & \text{Gender (M of F)} \\ \hline 25.7 & M \\ \hline 25.4 & F \\ \hline 23.8 & F \\ \hline 25.4 & F \\ \hline 26.7 & M \\ \hline 23.8 & F \\ \hline 25.4 & F \\ \hline 25.4 & F \\ \hline 25.7 & M \\ \hline 25.7 & F \\ \hline 23.5 & F \\ \hline 23.1 & F \\ \hline 26 & M \\ \hline 23.5 & F \\ \hline 26.7 & F \\ \hline 26 & M \\ \hline 23.1 & F \\ \hline 25.1 & F \\ \hline 27 & M \\ \hline 25.4 & F \\ \hline 23.5 & F \\ \hline 23.8 & F \\ \hline 27 & M \\ \hline 25.7 & F \\ \hline \end{array}\)
\(\begin{array}{|c|c|}\hline \text{Shoe Size (in cm)} & \text{Gender (M of F)} \\ \hline 27.6 & M \\ \hline 26.9 & F \\ \hline 26 & F \\ \hline 28.4 & M \\ \hline 23.5 & F \\ \hline 27 & F \\ \hline 25.1 & F \\ \hline 28.4 & M \\ \hline 23.1 & F \\ \hline 23.8 & F \\ \hline 26 & F \\ \hline 25.4 & M \\ \hline 23.8 & F \\ \hline 24.8 & M \\ \hline 25.1 & F \\ \hline 24.8 & F \\ \hline 26 & M \\ \hline 25.4 & F \\ \hline 26 & M \\ \hline 27 & M \\ \hline 25.7 & F \\ \hline 27 & M \\ \hline 23.5 & F \\ \hline 29 & F \\ \hline \end{array}\)

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