Ask question

# The mean + 1 sd of In [calcium intake (mg)] among 25 females, 12 to 14 years of age, below the poverty level is 6.56 + 0.64. Similarly, the mean + 1 sd of In [calcium intake (mg)] among 40 females, 12 to 14 years of age, above the poverty level is 6.80 + 0.76. 8.2 Test for a significant difference between the variances of the two groups. 8.3 What is the appropriate procedure to test for a signifi- cant difference in means between the two groups? 8.4 Implement the procedure in Problem 8.3 using the critical-value method. 8.5 What is the p-value corresponding to your answer to Problem 8.4? 8.6 Compute a 95% Cl for the difference in means between the two groups. # The mean + 1 sd of In [calcium intake (mg)] among 25 females, 12 to 14 years of age, below the poverty level is 6.56 + 0.64. Similarly, the mean + 1 sd of In [calcium intake (mg)] among 40 females, 12 to 14 years of age, above the poverty level is 6.80 + 0.76. 8.2 Test for a significant difference between the variances of the two groups. 8.3 What is the appropriate procedure to test for a signifi- cant difference in means between the two groups? 8.4 Implement the procedure in Problem 8.3 using the critical-value method. 8.5 What is the p-value corresponding to your answer to Problem 8.4? 8.6 Compute a 95% Cl for the difference in means between the two groups.

Question
Comparing two groups asked 2021-03-12
The mean + 1 sd of In [calcium intake (mg)] among 25 females, 12 to 14 years of age, below the poverty level is $$6.56 + 0.64.$$
Similarly, the mean + 1 sd of In [calcium intake (mg)] among 40 females, 12 to 14 years of age, above the poverty level is $$6.80 + 0.76.$$
8.2 Test for a significant difference between the variances of the two groups.
8.3 What is the appropriate procedure to test for a signifi- cant difference in means between the two groups?
8.4 Implement the procedure in Problem 8.3 using the critical-value method.
8.5 What is the p-value corresponding to your answer to Problem 8.4?
8.6 Compute a $$95\%$$ Cl for the difference in means between the two groups.

## Answers (1) 2021-03-13
Step 1
We are authorised to answer three subpart at a time, since you have not mentioned which part you are looking for, so we are answering the first three subpart, please re post your question separately for the remaining subpart.
Given:
$$n_{1} = 40, s_{1} = 0.76$$
$$n_{2} = 25, s_{2} = 0.64$$
Step 2
8.2
Hypothesis
$$H_{0} : \sigma_{1} = \sigma_{2}$$
$$H_{1} : \sigma_{1} \neq \sigma_{2}$$
Test statistics would be
$$F=\frac{S_{1}^{2}}{S_{2}^{2}}$$
$$=\frac{0.76^{2}}{0.64^{2}}$$
$$=1.41$$
Degree of freedom of numerator $$40 - 1 = 39$$
Degree of freedom of denominator $$25 - 1 = 24$$
P-value of the test $$= 0.3759$$
Therefore P-value is greater than 0.05, therefore it is fail to reject the null hypothesis.
Conclusion is that there is no significant difference between the populations.
Step 3
8.3
For this two sample t-test is used the reason is that population variances are equal.
Step 4
8.4
$$H_{0} : \mu_{1} = \mu_{2}$$
$$H_{1} : \mu_{1} \neq \mu_{2}$$
Degree of freedom
$$= n_{1} + n_{2} - 2$$
$$= 40 + 25 - 2$$
$$= 63$$
For two tailed test critical values $$\pm1.998$$
If t is less than -1.998 or greater than 1.998, fall to reject the null hypothesis.
Pooled standard deviation
$$S_{p}=\sqrt{\frac{(n_{1}-1)S_{1}^{2}+(n_{2}-1)S_{2}^{2}}{n_{1}+n_{2}-2}}$$
$$=\sqrt{\frac{(40-1)0.76^{2}+(25-1)0.64^{2}}{40+25-2}}$$
$$= 0.71666$$
And the t-statistics would be
$$t=\frac{\overline{x}_{1}-\overline{x}_{2}}{S_{p}\sqrt{\frac{1}{n_{1}}+\frac{1}{n_{2}}}}$$
$$= \frac{6.8-6.56}{0.71666\times \sqrt{\frac{1}{40}+\frac{1}{25}}}$$
$$= 1.3136$$
By seeing the t value, it is not lying in the rejection region, therefore it is fail to reject the null hypothesis.

### Relevant Questions asked 2021-02-09
The mean +1 sd of In [calcium intake (mg)] among 25 females, 12 to 14 years of age, below the poverty level is $$6.56 + 0.64.$$
Similarly, the mean + 1 sd of In [calcium intake (mg)] among 40 females, 12 to 14 years of age, above the poverty level is $$6.80 + 0.76.$$
1) Test for a significant difference between the variances of the two groups.
2) What is the appropriate procedure to test for a signifi- cant difference in means between the two groups?
3) Implement the procedure in Problem 8.3 using the critical-value method. asked 2020-11-01
Identify the appropriate hypothesis test for each of the following research situations using the options: The null hypothesis, The Test Statistics, The Sample Statistic, The Standard Error, and The Alpha Level.
A researcher conducts a cross-sectional developmental study to determine whether there is a significant difference in vocabulary skills between 8-year-old and 10-year-old children. A researcher determines that 8% of the males enrolled in Introductory Psychology have some form of color blindness, compared to only 2% of the females. Is there a significant relationship between color blindness and gender?
A researcher records the daily sugar consumption and the activity level for each of 20 children enrolled in a summer camp program. The researcher would like to determine whether there is a significant relationship between sugar consumption and activity level.
A researcher would like to determine whether a 4-week therapy program produces significant changes in behavior. A group of 25 participants is measured before therapy, at the end of therapy, and again 3 months after therapy.
A researcher would like to determine whether a new program for teaching mathematics is significantly better than the old program. It is suspected that the new program will be very effective for small-group instruction but probably will not work well with large classes. The research study involves comparing four groups of students: a small class taught by the new method, a large class taught by the new method, a small class taught by the old method, and a large class taught by the old method. asked 2021-01-06
Two different analytical methods were used to determine residual chlorine in sewage effluents. Both methods were used on the same samples, but each came from various locations, with differing amounts of contact time with the effluent. The concentration of Cl in mg//L was determined by the two methods, and the following results were obtained:
Method $$A: 0.39, 0.84, 1.76, 3.35, 4.69, 7.70, 10.52, 10.92$$
Method $$B: 0.36, 1.35, 2.56, 3.92, 5.35, 8.33, 10.70, 10.91$$
(a) What type of t test should be used to compare the two methods and why?
(b) Do the two methods give different results?
(c) Does the conclusion depend on whether the 90%, 95% or 99% confidence levels are used? asked 2020-10-23
1. Find each of the requested values for a population with a mean of $$? = 40$$, and a standard deviation of $$? = 8$$ A. What is the z-score corresponding to $$X = 52?$$ B. What is the X value corresponding to $$z = - 0.50?$$ C. If all of the scores in the population are transformed into z-scores, what will be the values for the mean and standard deviation for the complete set of z-scores? D. What is the z-score corresponding to a sample mean of $$M=42$$ for a sample of $$n = 4$$ scores? E. What is the z-scores corresponding to a sample mean of $$M= 42$$ for a sample of $$n = 6$$ scores? 2. True or false: a. All normal distributions are symmetrical b. All normal distributions have a mean of 1.0 c. All normal distributions have a standard deviation of 1.0 d. The total area under the curve of all normal distributions is equal to 1 3. Interpret the location, direction, and distance (near or far) of the following zscores: $$a. -2.00 b. 1.25 c. 3.50 d. -0.34$$ 4. You are part of a trivia team and have tracked your team’s performance since you started playing, so you know that your scores are normally distributed with $$\mu = 78$$ and $$\sigma = 12$$. Recently, a new person joined the team, and you think the scores have gotten better. Use hypothesis testing to see if the average score has improved based on the following 8 weeks’ worth of score data: $$82, 74, 62, 68, 79, 94, 90, 81, 80$$. 5. You get hired as a server at a local restaurant, and the manager tells you that servers’ tips are $42 on average but vary about $$12 (\mu = 42, \sigma = 12)$$. You decide to track your tips to see if you make a different amount, but because this is your first job as a server, you don’t know if you will make more or less in tips. After working 16 shifts, you find that your average nightly amount is$44.50 from tips. Test for a difference between this value and the population mean at the $$\alpha = 0.05$$ level of significance. asked 2021-01-10
Effect of alcoholic parents A study1 compared personality characteristics between 49 children of alcoholics and a control group of 49 children of nonalcoholics who were matched on age and gender. On a measure of well being, the 49 children of alcoholics had a mean of $$\displaystyle{26.1}{\left({s}={7.2}\right)}$$ and the 49 subjects in the control group had a mean of $$\displaystyle{\left[{28.8}{\left({s}={6.4}\right)}\right]}$$. The difference scores between the matched subjects from the two groups had a mean of $$\displaystyle{2.7}{\left({s}={9.7}\right)}$$.
a. Are the groups to be compared independent samples or depentend samples? Why?
b. Show all speps of a test equality of the two population means for a two-sided alternative hypotesis. Report the P-value and interpret.
c. What assumptions must you make the inference in part b to be valid? asked 2021-05-04 When a gas is taken from a to c along the curved path in the figure (Figure 1) , the work done by the gas is W = -40 J and the heat added to the gas is Q = -140 J . Along path abc, the work done by the gas is W = -50 J . (That is, 50 J of work is done on the gas.)
I keep on missing Part D. The answer for part D is not -150,150,-155,108,105( was close but it said not quite check calculations)
Part A
What is Q for path abc?
Express your answer to two significant figures and include the appropriate units.
Part B
f Pc=1/2Pb, what is W for path cda?
Express your answer to two significant figures and include the appropriate units.
Part C
What is Q for path cda?
Express your answer to two significant figures and include the appropriate units.
Part D
What is Ua?Uc?
Express your answer to two significant figures and include the appropriate units.
Part E
If Ud?Uc=42J, what is Q for path da?
Express your answer to two significant figures and include the appropriate units. asked 2020-12-24
True or False
1.The goal of descriptive statistics is to simplify, summarize, and organize data.
2.A summary value, usually numerical, that describes a sample is called a parameter.
3.A researcher records the average age for a group of 25 preschool children selected to participate in a research study. The average age is an example of a statistic.
4.The median is the most commonly used measure of central tendency.
5.The mode is the best way to measure central tendency for data from a nominal scale of measurement.
6.A distribution of scores and a mean of 55 and a standard deviation of 4. The variance for this distribution is 16.
7.In a distribution with a mean of M = 36 and a standard deviation of SD = 8, a score of 40 would be considered an extreme value.
8.In a distribution with a mean of M = 76 and a standard deviation of SD = 7, a score of 91 would be considered an extreme value.
9.A negative correlation means that as the X values decrease, the Y values also tend to decrease.
10.The goal of a hypothesis test is to demonstrate that the patterns observed in the sample data represent real patterns in the population and are not simply due to chance or sampling error. asked 2021-03-05
A CI is desired for the true average stray-load loss A (watts) for a certain type of induction motor when the line current is heldat 10 amps for a speed of 1500 rpm. Assume that stray-load loss isnormally distributed with A = 3.0.
In this problem part (a) wants you to compute a 95% CI for A when n =25 and the sample mean = 58.3. asked 2020-10-23
The table below shows the number of people for three different race groups who were shot by police that were either armed or unarmed. These values are very close to the exact numbers. They have been changed slightly for each student to get a unique problem.
Suspect was Armed:
Black - 543
White - 1176
Hispanic - 378
Total - 2097
Suspect was unarmed:
Black - 60
White - 67
Hispanic - 38
Total - 165
Total:
Black - 603
White - 1243
Hispanic - 416
Total - 2262
Give your answer as a decimal to at least three decimal places.
a) What percent are Black?
b) What percent are Unarmed?
c) In order for two variables to be Independent of each other, the P $$(A and B) = P(A) \cdot P(B) P(A and B) = P(A) \cdot P(B).$$
This just means that the percentage of times that both things happen equals the individual percentages multiplied together (Only if they are Independent of each other).
Therefore, if a person's race is independent of whether they were killed being unarmed then the percentage of black people that are killed while being unarmed should equal the percentage of blacks times the percentage of Unarmed. Let's check this. Multiply your answer to part a (percentage of blacks) by your answer to part b (percentage of unarmed).
Remember, the previous answer is only correct if the variables are Independent.
d) Now let's get the real percent that are Black and Unarmed by using the table?
If answer c is "significantly different" than answer d, then that means that there could be a different percentage of unarmed people being shot based on race. We will check this out later in the course.
Let's compare the percentage of unarmed shot for each race.
e) What percent are White and Unarmed?
f) What percent are Hispanic and Unarmed?
If you compare answers d, e and f it shows the highest percentage of unarmed people being shot is most likely white.
Why is that?
This is because there are more white people in the United States than any other race and therefore there are likely to be more white people in the table. Since there are more white people in the table, there most likely would be more white and unarmed people shot by police than any other race. This pulls the percentage of white and unarmed up. In addition, there most likely would be more white and armed shot by police. All the percentages for white people would be higher, because there are more white people. For example, the table contains very few Hispanic people, and the percentage of people in the table that were Hispanic and unarmed is the lowest percentage.
Think of it this way. If you went to a college that was 90% female and 10% male, then females would most likely have the highest percentage of A grades. They would also most likely have the highest percentage of B, C, D and F grades
The correct way to compare is "conditional probability". Conditional probability is getting the probability of something happening, given we are dealing with just the people in a particular group.
g) What percent of blacks shot and killed by police were unarmed?
h) What percent of whites shot and killed by police were unarmed?
i) What percent of Hispanics shot and killed by police were unarmed?
You can see by the answers to part g and h, that the percentage of blacks that were unarmed and killed by police is approximately twice that of whites that were unarmed and killed by police.
j) Why do you believe this is happening?
Do a search on the internet for reasons why blacks are more likely to be killed by police. Read a few articles on the topic. Write your response using the articles as references. Give the websites used in your response. Your answer should be several sentences long with at least one website listed. This part of this problem will be graded after the due date. asked 2020-11-08
Are yields for organic farming different from conventional farming yields? Independent random samples from method A (organic farming) and method B (conventional farming) gave the following information about yield of sweet corn (in tons/acre). $$\text{Method} A: 6.51, 7.02, 6.81, 7.27, 6.73, 6.11, 6.17, 5.88, 6.69, 7.12, 5.74, 6.90.$$
$$\text{Method} B: 7.32, 7.01, 6.66, 6.85, 5.78, 6.48, 5.95, 6.31, 6.50, 5.93, 6.68.$$ Use a 5% level of significance to test the claim that there is no difference between the yield distributions. (a) What is the level of significance? (b) Compute the sample test statistic. (Round your answer to two decimal places.) (c) Find the P-value of the sample test statistic. (Round your answer to four decimal places.)
...