And the values of y are the same in both function.

Therefore, The function g(z) is « horizontal shift of f(z).

The function g(z) is shifted 1 unit to the left.

Since we subtract 1 from the values of y for the function f to get the values of y for the function A(z).

And the values of x are the same in both function. Therefore, The function A(z) is a vertical shift of f(x).

The function f(x) is shifted 1 unit down.