Question

Smoking and drinking coffee have a tendency to stain teeth. In an effort to determine the ability of chewing gum to remove stains on teeth, researcher

Study design
ANSWERED
asked 2021-06-07
Smoking and drinking coffee have a tendency to stain teeth. In an effort to determine the ability of chewing gum to remove stains on teeth, researchers conducted an experiment in which 64 bovine incisors (teeth) were stained with natural pigments such as coffee for 10 days. Each tooth was randomly assigned to one of four treatments: gum A, gum B, gum C, or saliva. Ea ch tooth group was placed into a device that simulated a human chewing gum. The temperature of the device was maintained at body temperature and the tooth was in the device for 20 minutes. The process was repeated six times (for a total of 120 minutes of chewing). The researcher conducting the experiment did not know which treatment was being applied to each experimental unit. Upon removing a tooth from the chewing apparatus, the color change was measured using a spectrophotometer. The percent age of stain removed by each treatment after 120 minutes is as follows: Gum A, 47.6%; Gum B, 45.2%, Gum C, 21.4%, Saliva, 2.1%. The researchers concluded that gums A and B removed significantly more stain than gum C or saliva. In addition, gum C removed significantly more stain than saliva. (a) Identify the research objective. (b) Is this an observational study or designed experiment? Why? (c) If observational, what type of observational study is this? If an experiment, what type of experimental design is this? (d) What is the response variable? (e) What is the explanatory variable? ls it qualitative or quantitative? (I) Identify the experimental units. (g) State a factor that could affect the value of the response variable that is fixed at a set level. (h) What is the conclusion of the study?

Answers (1)

2021-06-08
a) The research objective is to determine the ability of chewing gum to remove stains on teeth , because smoking and drinking coffee have a tendency to stain teeth.
2b) This is a designed experiment because the treatment was intentionally conducted on the teeth to determine the effect of stain removal .Teeth act as the experimental unit and amount of stain removed is the response variable .If a researcher intentionally changes the value of an explanatory variable, and then records the value of the response variable for each group, the study is a designed experiment.
3c) This is a Completely Randomized Design .In a completely randomized design , each experimental unit is randomly assigned to a treatment. Amount of stain removed is the response variable .The various levels of the factor are the treatments in a completely randomized design.
4d)The percentage of stain removed by each treatment is the response variable .
5e) Each tooth was randomly assigned to one of four treatments: gum A, gum B, gum C, or saliva .Gum or saliva is the explanatory variable .Since the treatment is to to determine the ability of chewing gum to remove stains on teeth ,it is qualitative .
6f)The 64 bovine incisors (teeth) is the experimental units.
7g)Each tooth group was placed into a device that simulated a human chewing gum.The process was repeated six times (for a total of 120 minutes of chewing).This could affect the value of the response variable that is fixed at a set level.
8h) The researchers concluded that gums A and B removed significantly more stain than gum C or saliva. In addition, gum C removed significantly more stain than saliva.
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