# DISCOVER: Nested Form of a Polynomial Expand Q to prove that the polynomials P and Q ae the same P(x) = 3x^{4} - 5x^{3} + x^{2} - 3x +5 Q(x) = (((3x - 5)x + 1)x 3)x + 5 Try to evaluate P(2) and Q(2) in your head, using the forms given. Which is easier? Now write the polynomial R(x) =x^{5} - 2x^{4} + 3x^{3} - 2x^{2} + 3x + 4 in “nested” form, like the polynomial Q. Use the nested form to find R(3) in your head. Do you see how calculating with the nested form follows the same arithmetic steps as calculating the value ofa polynomial using synthetic division?

Question
Polynomial arithmetic
DISCOVER: Nested Form of a Polynomial Expand Q to prove that the polynomials P and Q ae the same $$P(x) = 3x^{4} - 5x^{3} + x^{2} - 3x +5$$
$$Q(x) = (((3x - 5)x + 1)x 3)x + 5$$
Try to evaluate P(2) and Q(2) in your head, using the forms given. Which is easier? Now write the polynomial
R(x) =x^{5} - 2x^{4} + 3x^{3} - 2x^{2} + 3x + 4\) in “nested” form, like the polynomial Q. Use the nested form to find R(3) in your head.
Do you see how calculating with the nested form follows the same arithmetic steps as calculating the value ofa polynomial using synthetic division?

2021-02-22
Step 1
Given $$P(x) = 3x^{4} - 5x^{3} + x^{2} - 3x + 5$$
$$Q(x) = (((3x - 5)x + 1)x-3)x+5$$
$$R(x) = x^{5} -2x^{4} + 3x^{3} - 2x^{2} + 3x + 4$$
Expand Q
$$Q(x) = (((3x - 5)x + 1)x-3)x + 5$$
$$=((3x^{2} - 5x + 1)x-3)x + 5$$
$$=(3x^{3} - 5x^{2} + x - 3)x + 5$$
$$= 3x^{4} - 5x^{3} + x^{2} - 3x + 5$$
$$\text{So}, P(x) = Q(x) = 3x^{4} -5x^{3} +x^{2} - 3x + 5$$
Hence proved
Step 2
Evaluate P(2) and Q(2)
$$P(x) = 3x^{4} - 5x^{3} + x^{2} - 3x + 5$$
$$P(2) = 3(2)^{4} - 5(2)^{3} + (2)^{2} - 3(2) + 5$$
$$= 48 - 40 + 4 - 6 + 5$$
$$=11$$
$$Q(2) = (((3(2) - 5)2+1)2- 3) 2 + 5$$
$$=((3(2) + 1)2 - 3)2 +5$$
$$=((3(2) - 3)2 + 5$$
$$= (3)2+5$$
$$= 11$$
Nested form of R(x)
$$R(x) = x^{5} - 2x^{4} + 3x^{3} - 2x^{2} + 3x +4$$
$$R(x) = (x^{4} - 2x^{3} + 3x^{2} - 2x + 3)x +4$$
$$= ((x^{3} - 2x^{2} + 3x - 2)x + 3)x +4$$
$$= (((x^{2} - 2x + 3)x - 2)x + 3)x +4$$
$$= ((((x - 2)x + 3)x - 2)x + 3)x +4$$
$$R(x) = ((((x - 2)x + 3)x - 2)x + 3)x +4$$
$$R(3) = ((((3 - 2)3 + 3)3 - 2)3 + 3)3 + 4$$
$$=167$$

### Relevant Questions

Nested Form of a Polynomial Expand Q to prove that the polynomials P and Q ae the same $$\displaystyle{P}{\left({x}\right)}={3}{x}^{{4}}-{5}{x}^{{3}}+{x}^{{2}}-{3}{x}+{5}{N}{S}{K}{Q}{\left({x}\right)}={\left({\left({\left({3}{x}-{5}\right)}{x}+{1}\right)}{x}-{3}\right)}{x}+{5}$$ Try to evaluate P(2) and Q(2) in your head, using the forms given. Which is easier? Now write the polynomial $$\displaystyle{R}{\left({x}\right)}={x}^{{5}}—{2}{x}^{{4}}+{3}{x}^{{3}}—{2}{x}^{{3}}+{3}{x}+{4}$$ in “nested” form, like the polynomial Q. Use the nested form to find R(3) in your head. Do you see how calculating with the nested form follows the same arithmetic steps as calculating the value ofa polynomial using synthetic division?
Given the following function: $$\displaystyle{f{{\left({x}\right)}}}={1.01}{e}^{{{4}{x}}}-{4.62}{e}^{{{3}{x}}}-{3.11}{e}^{{{2}{x}}}+{12.2}{e}^{{{x}}}-{1.99}$$ a)Use three-digit rounding frithmetic, the assumption that $$\displaystyle{e}^{{{1.53}}}={4.62}$$, and the fact that $$\displaystyle{e}^{{{n}{x}}}={\left({e}^{{{x}}}\right)}^{{{n}}}$$ to evaluate $$\displaystyle{f{{\left({1.53}\right)}}}$$ b)Redo the same calculation by first rewriting the equation using the polynomial factoring technique c)Calculate the percentage relative errors in both part a) and b) to the true result $$\displaystyle{f{{\left({1.53}\right)}}}=-{7.60787}$$
Given the following function:
$$\displaystyle{f{{\left({x}\right)}}}={1.01}{e}^{{{4}{x}}}-{4.62}{e}^{{{3}{x}}}-{3.11}{e}^{{{2}{x}}}+{12.2}{e}^{{{x}}}$$
a) Use three-digit rounding frithmetic, the assumption that $$\displaystyle{e}^{{{1.53}}}={4.62}$$, and the fact that $$\displaystyle{e}^{{{n}{x}}}={\left({e}^{{{x}}}\right)}^{{{n}}}$$ to evaluate $$\displaystyle{f{{\left({1.53}\right)}}}$$
b) Redo the same calculation by first rewriting the equation using the polynomial factoring technique
c) Calculate the percentage relative errors in both part a) and b) to the true result $$\displaystyle{f{{\left({1.53}\right)}}}=-{7.60787}$$
Case: Dr. Jung’s Diamonds Selection
With Christmas coming, Dr. Jung became interested in buying diamonds for his wife. After perusing the Web, he learned about the “4Cs” of diamonds: cut, color, clarity, and carat. He knew his wife wanted round-cut earrings mounted in white gold settings, so he immediately narrowed his focus to evaluating color, clarity, and carat for that style earring.
After a bit of searching, Dr. Jung located a number of earring sets that he would consider purchasing. But he knew the pricing of diamonds varied considerably. To assist in his decision making, Dr. Jung decided to use regression analysis to develop a model to predict the retail price of different sets of round-cut earrings based on their color, clarity, and carat scores. He assembled the data in the file Diamonds.xls for this purpose. Use this data to answer the following questions for Dr. Jung.
1) Prepare scatter plots showing the relationship between the earring prices (Y) and each of the potential independent variables. What sort of relationship does each plot suggest?
2) Let X1, X2, and X3 represent diamond color, clarity, and carats, respectively. If Dr. Jung wanted to build a linear regression model to estimate earring prices using these variables, which variables would you recommend that he use? Why?
3) Suppose Dr. Jung decides to use clarity (X2) and carats (X3) as independent variables in a regression model to predict earring prices. What is the estimated regression equation? What is the value of the R2 and adjusted-R2 statistics?
4) Use the regression equation identified in the previous question to create estimated prices for each of the earring sets in Dr. Jung’s sample. Which sets of earrings appear to be overpriced and which appear to be bargains? Based on this analysis, which set of earrings would you suggest that Dr. Jung purchase?
5) Dr. Jung now remembers that it sometimes helps to perform a square root transformation on the dependent variable in a regression problem. Modify your spreadsheet to include a new dependent variable that is the square root on the earring prices (use Excel’s SQRT( ) function). If Dr. Jung wanted to build a linear regression model to estimate the square root of earring prices using the same independent variables as before, which variables would you recommend that he use? Why?
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6) Suppose Dr. Jung decides to use clarity (X2) and carats (X3) as independent variables in a regression model to predict the square root of the earring prices. What is the estimated regression equation? What is the value of the R2 and adjusted-R2 statistics?
7) Use the regression equation identified in the previous question to create estimated prices for each of the earring sets in Dr. Jung’s sample. (Remember, your model estimates the square root of the earring prices. So you must actually square the model’s estimates to convert them to price estimates.) Which sets of earring appears to be overpriced and which appear to be bargains? Based on this analysis, which set of earrings would you suggest that Dr. Jung purchase?
8) Dr. Jung now also remembers that it sometimes helps to include interaction terms in a regression model—where you create a new independent variable as the product of two of the original variables. Modify your spreadsheet to include three new independent variables, X4, X5, and X6, representing interaction terms where: X4 = X1 × X2, X5 = X1 × X3, and X6 = X2 × X3. There are now six potential independent variables. If Dr. Jung wanted to build a linear regression model to estimate the square root of earring prices using the same independent variables as before, which variables would you recommend that he use? Why?
9) Suppose Dr. Jung decides to use color (X1), carats (X3) and the interaction terms X4 (color * clarity) and X5 (color * carats) as independent variables in a regression model to predict the square root of the earring prices. What is the estimated regression equation? What is the value of the R2 and adjusted-R2 statistics?
10) Use the regression equation identified in the previous question to create estimated prices for each of the earring sets in Dr. Jung’s sample. (Remember, your model estimates the square root of the earring prices. So you must square the model’s estimates to convert them to actual price estimates.) Which sets of earrings appear to be overpriced and which appear to be bargains? Based on this analysis, which set of earrings would you suggest that Dr. Jung purchase?
1. Explain with numerical examples what Real Numbers and Algebraic Expressions are. 2. Explain with numerical examples Factoring and finding LCMs (least common multiples). Explain factoring of a larger number. 3. Explain with numerical examples arithmetical operations (addition, subtraction, multiplication, division) with fractions 4, Explain with numerical examples arithmetical operations (addition, subtraction, multiplication, division) with percentages 5. Explain with numerical examples exponential notation 6. Explain with numerical examples order (precedence) of arithmetic operations 7. Explain with numerical examples the concept and how to find perimeter, area, volume, and circumference (use related formulas)
An experiment on the probability is carried out, in which the sample space of the experiment is
$$S = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12}.$$
Let event $$E={2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7}, event$$
$$F={5, 6, 7, 8, 9}, event G={9, 10, 11, 12}, and event H={2, 3, 4}$$.
Assume that each outcome is equally likely. List the outcome s in For G.
Now find P( For G) by counting the number of outcomes in For G.
Determine P (For G ) using the General Addition Rule.
The table below shows the number of people for three different race groups who were shot by police that were either armed or unarmed. These values are very close to the exact numbers. They have been changed slightly for each student to get a unique problem.
Suspect was Armed:
Black - 543
White - 1176
Hispanic - 378
Total - 2097
Suspect was unarmed:
Black - 60
White - 67
Hispanic - 38
Total - 165
Total:
Black - 603
White - 1243
Hispanic - 416
Total - 2262
Give your answer as a decimal to at least three decimal places.
a) What percent are Black?
b) What percent are Unarmed?
c) In order for two variables to be Independent of each other, the P $$(A and B) = P(A) \cdot P(B) P(A and B) = P(A) \cdot P(B).$$
This just means that the percentage of times that both things happen equals the individual percentages multiplied together (Only if they are Independent of each other).
Therefore, if a person's race is independent of whether they were killed being unarmed then the percentage of black people that are killed while being unarmed should equal the percentage of blacks times the percentage of Unarmed. Let's check this. Multiply your answer to part a (percentage of blacks) by your answer to part b (percentage of unarmed).
Remember, the previous answer is only correct if the variables are Independent.
d) Now let's get the real percent that are Black and Unarmed by using the table?
If answer c is "significantly different" than answer d, then that means that there could be a different percentage of unarmed people being shot based on race. We will check this out later in the course.
Let's compare the percentage of unarmed shot for each race.
e) What percent are White and Unarmed?
f) What percent are Hispanic and Unarmed?
If you compare answers d, e and f it shows the highest percentage of unarmed people being shot is most likely white.
Why is that?
This is because there are more white people in the United States than any other race and therefore there are likely to be more white people in the table. Since there are more white people in the table, there most likely would be more white and unarmed people shot by police than any other race. This pulls the percentage of white and unarmed up. In addition, there most likely would be more white and armed shot by police. All the percentages for white people would be higher, because there are more white people. For example, the table contains very few Hispanic people, and the percentage of people in the table that were Hispanic and unarmed is the lowest percentage.
Think of it this way. If you went to a college that was 90% female and 10% male, then females would most likely have the highest percentage of A grades. They would also most likely have the highest percentage of B, C, D and F grades
The correct way to compare is "conditional probability". Conditional probability is getting the probability of something happening, given we are dealing with just the people in a particular group.
g) What percent of blacks shot and killed by police were unarmed?
h) What percent of whites shot and killed by police were unarmed?
i) What percent of Hispanics shot and killed by police were unarmed?
You can see by the answers to part g and h, that the percentage of blacks that were unarmed and killed by police is approximately twice that of whites that were unarmed and killed by police.
j) Why do you believe this is happening?
Do a search on the internet for reasons why blacks are more likely to be killed by police. Read a few articles on the topic. Write your response using the articles as references. Give the websites used in your response. Your answer should be several sentences long with at least one website listed. This part of this problem will be graded after the due date.
Testing for a Linear Correlation. In Exercises 13–28, construct a scatterplot, and find the value of the linear correlation coefficient r. Also find the P-value or the critical values of r from Table A-6. Use a significance level of $$\alpha = 0.05$$. Determine whether there is sufficient evidence to support a claim of a linear correlation between the two variables. (Save your work because the same data sets will be used in Section 10-2 exercises.) Lemons and Car Crashes Listed below are annual data for various years. The data are weights (metric tons) of lemons imported from Mexico and U.S. car crash fatality rates per 100,000 population [based on data from “The Trouble with QSAR (or How I Learned to Stop Worrying and Embrace Fallacy),” by Stephen Johnson, Journal of Chemical Information and Modeling, Vol. 48, No. 1]. Is there sufficient evidence to conclude that there is a linear correlation between weights of lemon imports from Mexico and U.S. car fatality rates? Do the results suggest that imported lemons cause car fatalities? $$\begin{matrix} \text{Lemon Imports} & 230 & 265 & 358 & 480 & 530\\ \text{Crashe Fatality Rate} & 15.9 & 15.7 & 15.4 & 15.3 & 14.9\\ \end{matrix}$$