# To state:A factor that could affect the value of the response variable that is fixed at a set level.

To state:A factor that could affect the value of the response variable that is fixed at a set level.
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Justification:
Factor: A factor is the explanatory variable in an experiment, the effect of which on the response variable is of importance in the experiment. In an experiment, researchers manipulate each factor at various levels to study the effects on the response variable.
In the study, the researchers place the tooth groups along with the chewing gums (treatments), in the chewing apparatus. Thus, along with the gums and saliva, the chewing apparatus might also have an effect on the response variable ‘percentage of stain removed’ and is a factor. While there are 4 different types of treatments, the chewing apparatus is fixed for all the treatments.
The chewing time, which is fixed at 20 minutes for each tooth group and a total of 120 minutes of chewing, is also a factor in the experiment.
Thus, the chewing apparatus that stimulated a human chewing gum and chewing time could be the factors that could affect the value of the response variable that are fixed at set levels.