# Suppose the alphabet consists of just {a,b,c,d,e}. Consider strings of letters that show repetitions. How many 4-letter strings are there that do not contain “aa"?

Question
Suppose the alphabet consists of just {a,b,c,d,e}. Consider strings of letters that show repetitions. How many 4-letter strings are there that do not contain “aa"?

2021-01-20
Fundamental counting principle: If the first event could occur in m ways and the second event could occur in n ways, then the number of ways that the two events could occur in sequence is m*n
Solution Number of 4-letter strings
Each letter in the string has 5 possible values (a,b,c,d).
First letter: 5 ways
Second letter: 5 ways
Third letter: 5 ways
Fourth letter: 5 ways
Use the fundamental counting principle: $$\displaystyle{5}\cdot{5}\cdot{5}\cdot{5}={5}^{{4}}={625}$$
Number of 4-letter strings containing "aa" There are three possible positions for the string aa (that is, the string is either of the form aaxx, xaax or xxaa.
Each of the letters x in the string has 5 possible values (a,b,c,d,e).
Place aa: 3 ways First letter: 5 ways Second letter: 5 ways
Use the fundamental counting principle: $$\displaystyle{3}\cdot{5}\cdot{5}={75}$$
Number of 4-letter strings not containing "aa" There are 625 4-letter strings and there are 75 4-letter strings containing "aa", thus there are then 625-75=550 4-letter strings not containing "aa"

### Relevant Questions

Suppose a class consists of 4 students majoring in Mathematics, 3 students majoring in Chemistry and 4 students majoring in Computer Science. How many compositions are possible to form a group of 3 students if each group should consist at most 2 students majoring in Computer Science?
Suppose a class consists of 5 students majoring in Computer Science, 5 students majoring in Chemistry and 3 students majoring in Mathematics. How many ways are possible to form a group of 3 students if each group should consist at most 2 students majoring in Computer Science?
Scientists are working with a sample of cobalt-56 in their laboratory. They begin with a sample that has 60 mg of cobalt-56, and they measure that after 31 days, the mass of cobalt-56 sample is 45.43 mg. Recall that the differential equation which models exponential decay is $$\frac{dm}{dt}=-km$$ and the solution of that differential equation if $$m(t)=m_0e^{-kt}$$, where $$m_0$$ is the initial mass and k is the relative decay rate.
a) Use the information provided to compute the relative decay rate k. Show your calculation (do not just cit a formula).
b) Use the information provided to determine the half-life of cobalt-56. Give your answer in days and round to the second decimal place. Show your calculation (do not just cite a formula).
c) To the nearest day, how many days will it take for the initial sample of 60mg of cobalt-56 to decay to just 10mg of cobalt-56?
d) What will be the rate at which the mass is decaying when the sample has 50mg of cobalt-56? Make sure to indicate the appropriate units and round your answer to three decimal places.
Scientists are working with a sample of cobalt-56 in their laboratory. They begin with a sample that has 60 mg of cobalt-56, and they measure that after 31 days, the mass of cobalt-56 sample is 45.43 mg. Recall that the differential equation which models exponential decay is $$\displaystyle{\frac{{{d}{m}}}{{{\left.{d}{t}\right.}}}}=-{k}{m}$$ and the solution of that differential equation if $$\displaystyle{m}{\left({t}\right)}={m}_{{0}}{e}^{{-{k}{t}}}$$, where $$\displaystyle{m}_{{0}}$$ is the initial mass and k is the relative decay rate.
a) Use the information provided to compute the relative decay rate k. Show your calculation (do not just cit a formula).
b) Use the information provided to determine the half-life of cobalt-56. Give your answer in days and round to the second decimal place. Show your calculation (do not just cite a formula).
c) To the nearest day, how many days will it take for the initial sample of 60mg of cobalt-56 to decay to just 10mg of cobalt-56?
d) What will be the rate at which the mass is decaying when the sample has 50mg of cobalt-56? Make sure to indicate the appropriate units and round your answer to three decimal places.
Consider binary strings with n digits (for example, if n=4, some of the possible strings are 0011,1010,1101, etc.)
Let Zn be the number of binary strings of length n that do not contain the substring 000
Find a recurrence relation for Zn
You are not required to find a closed form for this recurrence.
The presidential election is coming. Five survey companies (A, B, C, D, and E) are doing survey to forecast whether or not the Republican candidate will win the election. Each company randomly selects a sample size between 1000 and 1500 people. All of these five companies interview people over the phone during Tuesday and Wednesday. The interviewee will be asked if he or she is 18 years old or above and U.S. citizen who are registered to vote. If yes, the interviewee will be further asked: will you vote for the Republican candidate? On Thursday morning, these five companies announce their survey sample and results at the same time on the newspapers. The results show that a% (from A), b% (from B), c% (from C), d% (from D), and e% (from E) will support the Republican candidate. The margin of error is plus/minus 3% for all results. Suppose that $$\displaystyle{c}{>}{a}{>}{d}{>}{e}{>}{b}$$. When you see these results from the newspapers, can you exactly identify which result(s) is (are) not reliable and not accurate? That is, can you identify which estimation interval(s) does (do) not include the true population proportion? If you can, explain why you can, if no, explain why you cannot and what information you need to identify. Discuss and explain your reasons. You must provide your statistical analysis and reasons.
Consider the next 1000 98% Cis for mu that a statistical consultant will obtain for various clients. Suppose the data sets on which the intervals are based are selected independently of one another. How many of these 1000 intervals do you expect to capture the corresponding value of $$\mu?$$
What isthe probability that between 970 and 990 of these intervals conta the corresponding value of ? (Hint: Let
‘the number among the 1000 intervals that contain What king of random variable s 2) (Use the normal approximation to the binomial distribution
A gambling book recommends the following "winning strategy" for the game of roulette. It recommends that a gambler bet $1 onred. If red appears (which has probablity 18/38), then the gamblershould take her$1 profit and quit. If the gambler loses this bet (which has probablity 20/38 of occurring), she should make additional \$1 bets on red on each of the next two spins of the roulette wheel and then quite. Let X denote the gambler's winnings when she quites.
(a) Find P{X > 0}.
(b) Are you concinved that the strategy is indeed a "winning" strategy? Explain your answer.
(c) Find E[X].
1. A researcher is interested in finding a 98% confidence interval for the mean number of times per day that college students text. The study included 144 students who averaged 44.7 texts per day. The standard deviation was 16.5 texts. a. To compute the confidence interval use a ? z t distribution. b. With 98% confidence the population mean number of texts per day is between and texts. c. If many groups of 144 randomly selected members are studied, then a different confidence interval would be produced from each group. About percent of these confidence intervals will contain the true population number of texts per day and about percent will not contain the true population mean number of texts per day. 2. You want to obtain a sample to estimate how much parents spend on their kids birthday parties. Based on previous study, you believe the population standard deviation is approximately $$\displaystyle\sigma={40.4}$$ dollars. You would like to be 90% confident that your estimate is within 1.5 dollar(s) of average spending on the birthday parties. How many parents do you have to sample? n = 3. You want to obtain a sample to estimate a population mean. Based on previous evidence, you believe the population standard deviation is approximately $$\displaystyle\sigma={57.5}$$. You would like to be 95% confident that your estimate is within 0.1 of the true population mean. How large of a sample size is required?
The table below shows the number of people for three different race groups who were shot by police that were either armed or unarmed. These values are very close to the exact numbers. They have been changed slightly for each student to get a unique problem.
Suspect was Armed:
Black - 543
White - 1176
Hispanic - 378
Total - 2097
Suspect was unarmed:
Black - 60
White - 67
Hispanic - 38
Total - 165
Total:
Black - 603
White - 1243
Hispanic - 416
Total - 2262
Give your answer as a decimal to at least three decimal places.
a) What percent are Black?
b) What percent are Unarmed?
c) In order for two variables to be Independent of each other, the P $$(A and B) = P(A) \cdot P(B) P(A and B) = P(A) \cdot P(B).$$
This just means that the percentage of times that both things happen equals the individual percentages multiplied together (Only if they are Independent of each other).
Therefore, if a person's race is independent of whether they were killed being unarmed then the percentage of black people that are killed while being unarmed should equal the percentage of blacks times the percentage of Unarmed. Let's check this. Multiply your answer to part a (percentage of blacks) by your answer to part b (percentage of unarmed).
Remember, the previous answer is only correct if the variables are Independent.
d) Now let's get the real percent that are Black and Unarmed by using the table?
If answer c is "significantly different" than answer d, then that means that there could be a different percentage of unarmed people being shot based on race. We will check this out later in the course.
Let's compare the percentage of unarmed shot for each race.
e) What percent are White and Unarmed?
f) What percent are Hispanic and Unarmed?
If you compare answers d, e and f it shows the highest percentage of unarmed people being shot is most likely white.
Why is that?
This is because there are more white people in the United States than any other race and therefore there are likely to be more white people in the table. Since there are more white people in the table, there most likely would be more white and unarmed people shot by police than any other race. This pulls the percentage of white and unarmed up. In addition, there most likely would be more white and armed shot by police. All the percentages for white people would be higher, because there are more white people. For example, the table contains very few Hispanic people, and the percentage of people in the table that were Hispanic and unarmed is the lowest percentage.
Think of it this way. If you went to a college that was 90% female and 10% male, then females would most likely have the highest percentage of A grades. They would also most likely have the highest percentage of B, C, D and F grades
The correct way to compare is "conditional probability". Conditional probability is getting the probability of something happening, given we are dealing with just the people in a particular group.
g) What percent of blacks shot and killed by police were unarmed?
h) What percent of whites shot and killed by police were unarmed?
i) What percent of Hispanics shot and killed by police were unarmed?
You can see by the answers to part g and h, that the percentage of blacks that were unarmed and killed by police is approximately twice that of whites that were unarmed and killed by police.
j) Why do you believe this is happening?
Do a search on the internet for reasons why blacks are more likely to be killed by police. Read a few articles on the topic. Write your response using the articles as references. Give the websites used in your response. Your answer should be several sentences long with at least one website listed. This part of this problem will be graded after the due date.
...