To compare and contrast:Observational studies and designed experiments and to identify the study that allows a researcher to claim causality.

iohanetc 2021-02-01 Answered
To compare and contrast:Observational studies and designed experiments and to identify the study that allows a researcher to claim causality.
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doplovif
Answered 2021-02-02 Author has 71 answers
Justification:
Observational Study: An observational study measures the value of a variable without influencing the value of response variables and explanatory variables. Thus, in an observational study,the researchers can observe the behavior of the individuals without influencing the outcome of that study.
Designed experiment: In a designed experimental study, the researchers allocate individuals to a certain group under that study and change the values of an explanatory variable intentionally, after which, the values of the response variable for each group is recorded.
Using the definitions, one can compare and contrastobservational studies and designed experiments as follows:
Ina designed experiment, the researcher intentionally influences the response variables by imposing different treatments on different experimental units. This enables the researcher to observe the differences in the effects of different treatments on the response variable.
In an observational study, the researcher does not attempt to influence the response variable in the study but simply observes the experimental units or the individuals under study.
As the researcher has no influence on the explanatory variables in an observational study, no claim of causality can be made in an observational study.
In a designed experiment, the researcher can change and influence the response variable by altering the explanatory variable.
Hence, a designed experiment allows a researcher to claim causality.
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