The article “Rocker Shoe Put to the Test: Can it Really Walk the Walk as a Way to Get in Shape?” (USA TODAY, October 12, 2009) describes claims made b

Chardonnay Felix 2020-12-03 Answered
The article “Rocker Shoe Put to the Test: Can it Really Walk the Walk as a Way to Get in Shape?” (USA TODAY, October 12, 2009) describes claims made by Skechers about Shape-Ups, a shoe line introduced in 2009. These curved-sole sneakers are supposed to help you “get into shape without going to the gym” according to a Skechers advertisement. Briefly describe how you might design a study to investigate this claim. Include how you would select subjects and what variables you would measure. Is the study you designed an observational study or an experiment?
You can still ask an expert for help

Expert Community at Your Service

  • Live experts 24/7
  • Questions are typically answered in as fast as 30 minutes
  • Personalized clear answers
Learn more

Solve your problem for the price of one coffee

  • Available 24/7
  • Math expert for every subject
  • Pay only if we can solve it
Ask Question

Expert Answer

Laith Petty
Answered 2020-12-04 Author has 103 answers
A shoe-manufacturing company claims that one of their shoe lines helps the wearer to “get into shape without going to the gym”.
In order to investigate the claim of the company, a study may be conducted with the help of volunteers, using the following steps:
- Form two groups, say, Group A and Group B.
- Consider 200 volunteers for the study. Measure the fitness level of each of the volunteers before beginning the study.
- Assign 100 volunteers randomly to Group A and the remaining 100 volunteers to Group B.
- Now, each of the 200 volunteers must perform some physical activities for a certain time period, say 2 months.
- The difference between Group A and Group B should be in their forms of physical activities and in the types of shoes they wear. The volunteers in Group A should perform some activities that are different from the kind of activities performed in a gym, while wearing the curved-sole sneakers. On the other hand, the volunteers in Group B should perform some physical activities that are comparable to the kind of activities performed at a gym, without wearing the curved-sole sneakers.
- After 2 months, measure the fitness level of each volunteer again, and compare the overall improvement in fitness levels of the volunteers in Group A with those in Group B.
Observational study:
An observational study is defined as a study, in which, the explanatory variables are not manipulated by the researcher, the researcher closely observes the characteristics of a population and then draws conclusions regarding that population or compares between two or more populations.
Experiment:
An experiment is defined as a study, in which, the explanatory variables are manipulated by the researcher to study their effects on the response variable, which is the variable of interest.
In the study designed above, the explanatory variables are the forms of physical activities and the types of shoes worn during such activities. The researcher manipulates these two explanatory variables and then observes the changes in the fitness levels after such manipulations.
Thus, the designed study is an experiment.

We have step-by-step solutions for your answer!

Expert Community at Your Service

  • Live experts 24/7
  • Questions are typically answered in as fast as 30 minutes
  • Personalized clear answers
Learn more

You might be interested in

asked 2021-01-15

The article “Anodic Fenton Treatment of Treflan MTF” describes a two-factor experiment designed to study the sorption of the herbicide trifluralin. The factors are the initial trifluralin concentration and the \(\displaystyle{F}{e}^{{{2}}}\ :\ {H}_{{{2}}}\ {O}_{{{2}}}\) delivery ratio. There were three replications for each treatment. The results presented in the following table are consistent with the means and standard deviations reported in the article. \(\begin{array}{|c|c|}\hline \text{Initial Concentration (M)} & \text{Delivery Ratio} & \text{Sorption (%)} \\ \hline 15 & 1:0 & 10.90 \quad 8.47 \quad 12.43 \\ \hline 15 & 1:1 & 3.33 \quad 2.40 \quad 2.67 \\ \hline 15 & 1:5 & 0.79 \quad 0.76 \quad 0.84 \\ \hline 15 & 1:10 & 0.54 \quad 0.69 \quad 0.57 \\ \hline 40 & 1:0 & 6.84 \quad 7.68 \quad 6.79 \\ \hline 40 & 1:1 & 1.72 \quad 1.55 \quad 1.82 \\ \hline 40 & 1:5 & 0.68 \quad 0.83 \quad 0.89 \\ \hline 40 & 1:10 & 0.58 \quad 1.13 \quad 1.28 \\ \hline 100 & 1:0 & 6.61 \quad 6.66 \quad 7.43 \\ \hline 100 & 1:1 & 1.25 \quad 1.46 \quad 1.49 \\ \hline 100 & 1:5 & 1.17 \quad 1.27 \quad 1.16 \\ \hline 100 & 1:10 & 0.93 \quad 0.67 \quad 0.80\\ \hline \end{array}\) a) Estimate all main effects and interactions. b) Construct an ANOVA table. You may give ranges for the P-values. c) Is the additive model plausible? Provide the value of the test statistic, its null distribution, and the P-value.

asked 2021-08-14

The pathogen Phytophthora capsici causes bell pepper plants to wilt and die. A research project was designed to study the effect of soil water content and the spread of the disease in fields of bell peppers. It is thought that too much water helps spread the disease. The fields were divided into rows and quadrants. The soil water content (percent of water by volume of soil) was determined for each plot. An important first step in such a research project is to give a statistical description of the data.
Soil Water Content for Bell Pepper Study
1514141431211111111101113161091512910714131489811131315129109916161210111112158101010119
(a) Make a box-and-whisker plot of the data. Find the interquartile range.

asked 2021-06-20
State whether the investigation in question is an observational study or a designed experiment. Justify your answer in each case.In the 1940s and early 1950s, the public was greatly concerned about polio. In an attempt to prevent this disease, Jonas Salk of the University of Pittsburgh developed a polio vaccine. In a test of the vaccine’s efficacy, involving nearly 2 million grade-school children, half of the children received the Salk vaccine; the other half received a placebo, in this case an injection of salt dissolved in water. Neither the children nor the doctors performing the diagnoses knew which children belonged to which group, but an evaluation center did. The center found that the incidence of polio was far less among the children inoculated with the Salk vaccine. From that information, the researchers concluded that the vaccine would be effective in preventing polio for all U.S. school children; consequently, it was made available for general use.
asked 2021-11-23
A researcher was interested in knowing whether the mean weight of the second baby is higher, lower, or about the same as the mean weight of the first baby for women who have at least two children

asked 2021-03-08

Prove that the reduced row echelon forms of the matrices(1 1 4 8 0 1 11 2 3 9 0 5 20 2 2 2 1 14 31 4 1 11 0 13 4) (0 3 3 1 50 1 1 0 00 2 2 0 3)

are the two matrices. 

The point of the reduced row echelon form is that the corresponding system of linear equations is in a particularly simple form, from which the solutions to the system AX=C in (4) can be determined immediately.

 

asked 2020-10-19
In an experiment designed to study the effects of illumination level on task performance (“Performance of Complex Tasks Under Different Levels of Illumination,” J. Illuminating Eng., 1976: 235–242), subjects were required to insert a fine-tipped probe into the eyeholes of ten needles in rapid succession both for a low light level with a black background and a higher level with a white background. Each data value is the time (sec) required to complete the task.
Subject(1)(2)(3)(4)(5)(6)(7)(8)(9)Black25.8528.8432.0525.7420.8941.0525.0124.9627.47White18.2820.8422.9619.6819.50924.9816.6116.0724.59
Does the data indicate that the higher level of illumination yields a decrease of more than 5 sec in true average task completion time? Test the appropriate hypotheses using the P-value approach.
asked 2020-11-26
Use either the critical-value approach or the P-value approach to perform the required hypothesis test. For several years, evidence had been mounting that folic acid reduces major birth defects. A. Czeizel and I. Dudas of the National Institute of Hygiene in Budapest directed a study that provided the strongest evidence to date. Their results were published in the paper “Prevention of the First Occurrence of Neural-Tube Defects by Periconceptional Vitamin Supplementation” (New England Journal of Medicine, Vol. 327(26), p. 1832). For the study, the doctors enrolled women prior to conception and divided them randomly into two groups. One group, consisting of 2701 women, took daily multivitamins containing 0.8 mg of folic acid, the other group, consisting of 2052 women, received only trace elements. Major birth defects occurred in 35 cases when the women took folic acid and in 47 cases when the women did not. a. At the 1% significance level, do the data provide sufficient evidence to conclude that women who take folic acid are at lesser risk of having children with major birth defects? b. Is this study a designed experiment or an observational study? Explain your answer. c. In view of your answers to parts (a) and (b), could you reasonably conclude that taking folic acid causes a reduction in major birth defects? Explain your answer.

New questions